148,071 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,224 images, 56,752 bibliographic items, 359,966 distributional records.

Closterium Nitzsch ex Ralfs, 1848

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Conjugatophyceae (Zygnematophyceae)
Order Desmidiales
Family Closteriaceae

Lectotype species: Closterium lunula Ehrenberg & Hemprich ex Ralfs

Original publication:Ralfs, J. (1848). The British Desmidieae. pp. [i]-xxii, [i], [1]-226, pls I-XXXV. London: Reeve, Benham & Reeve.
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Type designated in Silva, P.C. (1952). A review of nomenclatural conservation in the algae from the point of view of the type method. University of California Publications in Botany 25: 241-323.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Guiry, M.D. (2013). Taxonomy and nomenclature of the Conjugatophyceae (=Zygnematophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 28: 1-29.

Description: Cell solitary (rarely aggregated), small to large (72-1700 um), usually elongate-cylindric to elongate-fusiform, straight or, more commonly, curved (at least at ends). Cells usually tapering toward both ends; ends acute, rounded or truncate. Cell wall smooth or with longitudinal striae or costae, wall colorless, yellowish or brown (sometimes only at ends of cell). Cell wall ultrastructurally with outer, electron-dense amorphous layer and inner microfibrillar layer. Perforations in outer layer associated with less dense fibrillar areas in inner layer, but continuous pores similar to those in Desmidiaceae not present. Girdle bands (extra wall sections) present in some species. Chloroplasts two (rarely four) per cell, axial, elongate, stellate in end view, with one to many, axial or scattered pyrenoids. Pyrenoids usually numerous, except in very small species, and in axial row or scattered throughout chloroplast. Nucleus at middle between chloroplasts. Each end of cell with vacuole containing one or more granules of calcium sulfate. Asexual reproduction by transverse cell division. Daughter cell morphogenesis involves formation new semicells by gradual expansion from severed end, and in one species group, also involves formation of extra pieces of wall (girdle bands). Aplanospores and parthenospores observed in some species. Sexual reproduction by homothallic or heterothallic conjugation. Gametangia come together in mucilaginous envelope. Gametangia often immature sister cells from recent division. Both cells split at median suture; gametes partially or completely move out to fuse between gametangia. Zygospores spherical, ellipsoid, quadrate or irregular; some with scattered, broad conical protuberances or with long lobes surrounded by empty gametangial wall pieces. Zygospore wall smooth, with pits, scrobiculations, ridges or spines. Karyogamy during germination, followed by meiosis.

Information contributed by: J.F. Gerrath. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 12 Sep 2013 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Closterium is cosmopolitan, in periphyton of acidic, oligotrophic lakes and ponds; rarely in in more alkaline, eutrophic environments. Some species (e.g. C. aciculare) planktonic. Experimental studies on host range of parasitic phycomycetes may help in delimiting certain species groups. Several reproductively isolated mating groups (biological species) known in two morphological species complexes (in C. ehrengergii these are polyploids).

NCBI Nucleotide Sequences

Numbers of names and species: There are 1345 species (and infraspecific) names in the database at present, of which 187 have been flagged as currently accepted taxonomically.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is currently accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Closterium abruptum West C 
Closterium abruptum var. majus (J.Traunsteiner & M.Traunsteiner) Ruzicka C 
Closterium abruptum var. brevius (West & G.S.West) West & G.S.West S 
Closterium abruptum f. africanum Fritsch & Rich S 
Closterium abruptum var. africanum (Fritsch & Rich) Krieger C 
Closterium abruptum var. africanum f. angustum Grönblad P 
Closterium abruptum var. angustatum f. minor Y.V.Roll P 
Closterium abruptum f. africana F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich U 
Closterium abruptum f. angustissimum Schmidle C 
Closterium abruptum f. bohemica K.Rosa P 
Closterium abruptum f. brevior Cedergren U 
Closterium abruptum f. brevior West & G.S.West C 
Closterium abruptum f. majus Huber-Pestalozzi U 
Closterium abruptum f. punctatum West P 
Closterium abruptum subsp. brevius (West & G.S.West) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium abruptum var. brasiliense (Borge) Kurt Förster P 
Closterium abruptum var. cambricum W.B.Turner C 
Closterium abruptum var. canadense Bourrelly C 
Closterium abruptum var. elongatum K.P.Biswas P 
Closterium abruptum var. maius (Huber-Pestalozzi) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium abruptum var. major M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium abruptum var. vallesiacum L.Viret P 
Closterium abruptum var. westiorum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium abruptum var. [abruptum] f. nilssonii (Borge) A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson S 
Closterium abruptum f. nilssonii (Borge) A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium abruptum f. majus J.Traunsteiner & M.Traunsteiner S 
Closterium acerosum var. tumidum Borge C 
Closterium acerosum var. subangustum Klebs C 
Closterium acerosum f. tumida Borge C 
Closterium acerosum f. intermedia R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium acerosum f. longior S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium acerosum f. majus Reinsch P 
Closterium acerosum f. minor West & G.S.West P 
Closterium acerosum f. sigmoidea Deflandre P 
Closterium acerosum f. sigmoideum (Lagerheim & Nordstedt) Irénée-Marie S 
Closterium acerosum f. subtilissime-striatum Kossinskaja C 
Closterium acerosum subsp. minus (Hantzsch) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi S 
Closterium acerosum var. africana P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium acerosum var. angustius E.O.Hughes C 
Closterium acerosum var. bonariense Yacubson C 
Closterium acerosum var. elongatum West U 
Closterium acerosum var. kruppiana O.Zacharias P 
Closterium acerosum var. kwangsiense C.-C.Jao C 
Closterium acerosum var. maximum H.C.Wood P 
Closterium acerosum var. nasutum M.Hirano P 
Closterium acerosum var. parvum T.Hinode P 
Closterium acerosum var. porosum M.Hirano C 
Closterium acerosum var. rectum P.Palik P 
Closterium acerosum var. rollianum Kossinskaja ex Petlovany C 
Closterium acerosum var. sikangense C.-C.Jao U 
Closterium acerosum var. truncatum Gutwinski C 
Closterium acerosum var. waterbergens M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium acerosum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium acerosum f. rectum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Closterium acerosum var. angolense West & G.S.West C 
Closterium acerosum var. casinoensis Playfair C 
Closterium acerosum var. elongatum Brébisson C 
Closterium acerosum var. lanceolatum (Kützing ex Ralfs) Playfair S 
Closterium acerosum var. borgei Willi Krieger C 
Closterium acerosum var. minus Hantzsch C 
Closterium acerosum var. kriegeri P 
Closterium acerosum f. elongatum (Brébisson) Kossinskaja S 
Closterium acerosum f. lanceolatum (Kützing) Reinsch P 
Closterium acerosum f. abnormalis P.E.E.Kaiser P 
Closterium acerosum f. attenuatum W.B.Turner C 
Closterium acerosum f. colorato-glabra Woronichin U 
Closterium acerosum f. incolorato-punctata Woronichin U 
Closterium aciculare T.West C 
Closterium aciculare var. subpronum (West & G.S.West) West & G.S.West S 
Closterium aciculare f. brevius Elenkin C 
Closterium aciculare f. minus Kisselev C 
Closterium aciculare var. robustius Chodat C 
Closterium aciculare f. minus P.E.E.Kaiser C 
Closterium acuminatum Corda C 
Closterium acuminatum Kützing ex Ralfs S 
Closterium acus (O.F.Müller) Nitzsch S 
Closterium acutum f. cornu (Ehrenberg) Reinsch P 
Closterium acutum f. elongata G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium acutum f. intermedia S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium acutum f. latior S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium acutum f. lyngbyanum Reinsch P 
Closterium acutum f. minor Hustedt P 
Closterium acutum f. tenuior Nordstedt C 
Closterium acutum var. [linea] f. minus M.I.Claassen S 
Closterium acutum Brébisson C 
Closterium acutum var. linea (Perty) West & G.S.West C 
Closterium acutum var. variabile (Lemmermann) Willi Kreiger C 
Closterium acutum var. latius Grönblad C 
Closterium acutum var. ceratium (Perty) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium acutum var. tenerrima Ralfs C 
Closterium acutum var. maius W.Krieger C 
Closterium affine F.Gay S 
Closterium alpestre f. minus Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium amblyonema Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium amphiceps C.-C.Jao C 
Closterium anastomosans var. glabrum Gutwinski C 
Closterium anastomosum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium anguineum D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium angustatum Kützing ex Ralfs C 
Closterium angustatum var. gracilius Croasdale C 
Closterium angustatum f. sculptum (Raciborski) A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson S 
Closterium angustatum var. sculptum (Raciborski) Ruzicka C 
Closterium angustatum var. gracile Kossinskaja C 
Closterium angustatum f. boergesenii Gutwinski C 
Closterium angustatum f. tenuis K.Rosa P 
Closterium angustatum subsp. gracilius (Croasdale) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi S 
Closterium angustatum var. annulatum E.O.Hughes C 
Closterium angustatum var. asperum West C 
Closterium angustatum var. clavatum Hastings C 
Closterium angustatum var. multinucleatum Deflandre S 
Closterium angustatum var. pseudoboergesenii Behre P 
Closterium angustatum var. rectum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium angustatum var. reticulatum Wolle P 
Closterium angustatum var. subclavatum P.Bourrelly & Couté P 
Closterium angustatum var. subrecta Schmidle P 
Closterium angustatum var. boergesenii (Gutwinski) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium angustatum f. multistriatum Prescott C 
Closterium angustatum f. elongatum D.C.Jackson C 
Closterium angustum Hantzsch C 
Closterium annandalei P.J.Brühl & K.P.Biswas C 
Closterium antarcticum Ehrenberg C 
Closterium antiacerosum De Notaris C 
Closterium archerianum f. major Irénée-Marie S 
Closterium archerianum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie & D.K.Hilliard P 
Closterium archerianum var. minus Skuja P 
Closterium archerianum var. pseudocynthia Ruzicka C 
Closterium archerianum Cleve ex P.Lundell C 
Closterium archerianum var. compressum G.A.Klebs C 
Closterium archerianum var. cynthia (De Notaris) Klebs U 
Closterium archerianum f. grande Prescott C 
Closterium archerianum f. majus Irénée-Marie S 
Closterium arcuarium var. brevius Prescott C 
Closterium arcuarium var. sikkimense J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium arcuarium E.O.Hughes C 
Closterium arcuatum Brébisson ex Ralfs S 
Closterium arcus A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium areolatum f. glabra R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium areolatum f. simplicior R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium areolatum H.C.Wood C 
Closterium areolatum var. affine Lemmermann P 
Closterium arnoldianum Y.V.Roll C 
Closterium atomicum M.I.Claassen C 
Closterium attenuatum f. borgei K.H.O.Printz P 
Closterium attenuatum f. latius E.K.Kossinskaja P 
Closterium attenuatum subsp. sculptum Nordstedt P 
Closterium attenuatum Ralfs C 
Closterium attenuatum f. abbreviatum Prescott C 
Closterium attenuatum f. kamleshii Kant & P.Gupta C 
Closterium auerswaldii G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium aureum C.G.T.Preuss P 
Closterium australe var. crassius (G.S.West) Willi Krieg & Gerloff P 
Closterium australe (Raciborski) Lütkemüller S 
Closterium bacillum Joshua P 
Closterium baculum Brébisson S 
Closterium baileyanum var. annulatum B.Eichler & Raciborski P 
Closterium bailleyanum var. rectum (Rosa) Willi Krieger U 
Closterium baillyanum var. crassum (Grönblad) Coesel U 
Closterium baillyanum var. parvulum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium baillyanum var. parvulum f. tenuis Nygaard P 
Closterium baillyanum f. asperulatum (West & G.S.West) Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium baillyanum f. crassum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium baillyanum f. curvatum Thomasson P 
Closterium baillyanum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium baillyanum f. stellata Grönblad P 
Closterium baillyanum f. tenuis K.Rosa P 
Closterium baillyanum var. tenue (Nygaard) Nygaard P 
Closterium baillyanum (Brébisson ex Ralfs) Brébisson C 
Closterium baillyanum var. alpinum (Viret) Grönblad C 
Closterium baillyanum var. multinucleatum (Nordstedt) Grönblad C 
Closterium baillyanum var. parvulum Grönblad C 
Closterium balatonicum T.Hortobágyi P 
Closterium balmacarense W.B.Turner S 
Closterium balmacarense f. minus W.B.Turner U 
Closterium balmacarense var. scoticum (W.B.Turner) W.Krieger S 
Closterium barbaricum M.I.Claassen C 
Closterium biclavatum Börgesen C 
Closterium biclavatum f. australiense A.M.Scott ex Croasdale C 
Closterium bicurvatum Delponte S 
Closterium bicurvatum var. majus S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium bienense G.De Notaris P 
Closterium bitangchoianum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium bogoriense C.Bernard P 
Closterium borodinianum Y.V.Roll P 
Closterium boyanum M.I.Claasen P 
Closterium braunianum Reinsch P 
Closterium braunii f. sculpta (Nordstedt) Grönblad P 
Closterium braunii Reinsch C 
Closterium brebissonii Meneghini S 
Closterium brebissonii var. substriatum Grönblad S 
Closterium brunelii Bourrelly C 
Closterium bucharica I.A.Kisselev C 
Closterium caffrorum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium calamus Playfair S 
Closterium calmus Playfair S 
Closterium calosporum Wittrock C 
Closterium calosporum var. brasiliense Børgesen C 
Closterium calosporum var. galiciense f. dianoides P.E.E.Kaiser P 
Closterium calosporum f. maius West & G.S.West S 
Closterium calosporum f. minus Huber-Pestalozzi S 
Closterium calosporum f. minor J.N.F.Wille P 
Closterium calosporum f. typica R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium calosporum var. galiciense R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium calosporum var. minus M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium calosporum var. maius (West & G.S.West) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium calosporum f. erectum Prescott C 
Closterium calosporum var. himalayense M.Wanatabe U 
Closterium cancer Playfair U 
Closterium candianum G.B.Delponte P 
Closterium capense G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium capillare Delponte C 
Closterium capitatum Y.V.Roll P 
Closterium carniolicum Lütkemüller P 
Closterium caudatum Corda P 
Closterium ceratium var. angustum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium ceratium Perty C 
Closterium chittagongianum A.K.M.N.Islam & Akter C 
Closterium cingulum Playfair S 
Closterium claassenii A.Levanets C 
Closterium clandestinum Kützing P 
Closterium closterioides var. elongatum (Willi Krieger) Ruzicka S 
Closterium closterioides var. intermedium (J.Roy & Bisset) Ruzicka C 
Closterium closterioides (Ralfs) A.Louis & Peeters C 
Closterium closterioides var. interruptum Authority unknown U 
Closterium closteroides var. elongatum Brébisson C 
Closterium coloratum (G.A.Klebs) R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium columbianum G.S.West C 
Closterium compactum var. minus P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium compactum Nordstedt C 
Closterium complanatum Delponte C 
Closterium concinnum T.Hinode P 
Closterium constrictum R.Gutwinski U 
Closterium cordanum R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium cornu f. elongata G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium cornu f. hyalina A.Kurz P 
Closterium cornu f. majus Wille C 
Closterium cornu f. tumida G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium cornu subsp. croasdalei M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium cornu var. angustum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium cornu var. arcum West C 
Closterium cornu var. javanicum Gutwinski C 
Closterium cornu var. minus Claassen U 
Closterium cornu var. minus Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium cornu var. siamense West & G.S.West C 
Closterium cornu var. sigmoidea H.Bachmann P 
Closterium cornu var. tenuissima Brühl & Biswas C 
Closterium cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium cornu var. brasiliense Börgesen C 
Closterium cornu var. lundellii (Lagerheim) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium cornu var. upsaliense Nordstedt C 
Closterium cornu var. gibbum (Borge) O.A.Petlovany U 
Closterium cornutum Playfair S 
Closterium coronatum f. minus K.Förster C 
Closterium costatosporum Taft C 
Closterium costatum Corda ex Ralfs C 
Closterium costatum var. borgei (Willi Krieger) Ruzicka C 
Closterium costatum var. westii J.A.Cushman C 
Closterium costatum var. multipyrenoidum P.Bourrelly & Couté C 
Closterium costatum var. dilatatum (West & G.S.West) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium costatum var. erectum Grönblad C 
Closterium costatum var. multinucleatum Deflandre S 
Closterium costatum var. subcostatum (Nordstedt) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium costatum var. subtumidum Raciborski C 
Closterium costatum f. sigmoideum Corillion S 
Closterium costatum f. inflatum Prescott C 
Closterium costatum f. rectum Prescott C 
Closterium costatum var. scottii Prescott C 
Closterium costatum var. spirostriolatum (Raciborski) W.Krieger U 
Closterium costatum f. intermedia F.Ducellier P 
Closterium costatum f. klebsii Grönblad P 
Closterium costatum var. curtum Brébisson C 
Closterium costatum var. levis Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium costatum var. turgidulum (Kützing) G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium costatum var. wagae (Gutwinski) K.Rosa & Ruzicka P 
Closterium costatum var. [westii] f. borgeana N.N.Woronichin C 
Closterium costatum var. angustum Graffius C 
Closterium crameri C.Bernard P 
Closterium crassestriatum W.Archer C 
Closterium crassum Delponte U 
Closterium crassum Rabenhorst C 
Closterium crassum var. longissimum L.Viret P 
Closterium crenulatum Ehrenberg S 
Closterium croasdaleae A.K.M.N.Islam C 
Closterium cucumis Ehrenberg P 
Closterium cucumis Ehrenberg ex Ralfs P 
Closterium curtum L.A.Brébisson P 
Closterium curtum L.A.Brébisson ex Kützing P 
Closterium cuspidatum Bailey S 
Closterium cylindrocystis Kützing C 
Closterium cylindrus Ehrenberg S 
Closterium cymbellaeformis M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium cynthia f. lata Schmidle S 
Closterium cynthia var. curvatum V.Thérézien P 
Closterium cynthia var. waterbergense M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium cynthia De Notaris S 
Closterium cynthia f. punctatum Prescott & A.M.Scott C 
Closterium cynthia var. curvatissimum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium cynthia var. latum (Schmidle) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium cynthia var. jenneri (Ralfs) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium cynthia var. robustum (G.S.West) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium cynthia f. jenneri P 
Closterium cynthia var. minutum Kanetsuna C 
Closterium cynthioides J.Sampaio P 
Closterium dacchense A.K.M.N.Islam C 
Closterium decorum f. gracilior W.M.Maskell P 
Closterium decorum f. minor Manguin P 
Closterium decorum f. minor West & G.S.West P 
Closterium decorum var. breve West & G.S.West P 
Closterium decorum var. minus Skvortzov P 
Closterium decorum var. minus M.E.Claassen P 
Closterium decorum Brébisson C 
Closterium decorum var. elongatum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium decorum var. rectum Playfair C 
Closterium decorum var. gracilior Maskell S 
Closterium decussatum Kützing S 
Closterium decussatum Kützing ex Ralfs C 
Closterium delectum M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium delpontei f. angustura Raciborski P 
Closterium delpontei var. dilatatum (Schmidle) Kurt Förster P 
Closterium delpontei var. minimum C.Bernard P 
Closterium delpontei var. truncatum (W.B.Turner) Willi Krieger P 
Closterium delpontei (Klebs) Wolle C 
Closterium delpontei var. elongatum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium delpontei var. nordstedtii W.Krieger U 
Closterium delpontei var. rectum Playfair S 
Closterium delpontii f. glabra R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium delpontii f. sculpta R.Gutwinski U 
Closterium delpontii var. elongatum West & G.S.West P 
Closterium dianae f. brevior S.P.Petkoff S 
Closterium dianae f. intermedium Kossinskaja C 
Closterium dianae f. major J.N.F.Wille P 
Closterium dianae f. minus Hustedt U 
Closterium dianae f. minus Huber-Pestalozzi U 
Closterium dianae f. rectior V.B.Wittrock & Nordstedt P 
Closterium dianae subsp. brevius (S.P.Petkoff) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium dianae var. arcuatum f. crassior J.Roubal P 
Closterium dianae var. arcuatum f. major S.Yacubson P 
Closterium dianae var. crassum T.Hinode P 
Closterium dianae var. excavatum (Borge) J.Ruzicka P 
Closterium dianae var. major Skvortzov & M.Noda P 
Closterium dianae var. minus F.Ducellier P 
Closterium dianae var. pseudoleibleinii Förster & Eckert C 
Closterium dianae Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium dianae var. arcuatum (Brebisson ex Ralfs) Rabenhorst C 
Closterium dianae var. brevius (S.P.Petkoff) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium dianae var. cingulum Playfair C 
Closterium dianae var. pseudodianae (J.Roy) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium dianae var. compressum Klebs C 
Closterium dianae var. minus Hieronymus C 
Closterium dianae f. verrucosa Nagy-Tóth C 
Closterium dianae var. rectius (Norstedt) De Toni P 
Closterium dianae var. stellenboschense (Hodgetts) W.Krieger U 
Closterium didymocarpum Schmidle P 
Closterium didymocotum var. asperulatum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium didymoctocum var. striatum C.W.Lowe P 
Closterium didymotocum f. striolatum Förster & Eckert C 
Closterium didymotocum f. crassum Grönblad C 
Closterium didymotocum f. maximum Grönblad S 
Closterium didymotocum f. minus West & G.S.West C 
Closterium didymotocum f. perporosa P.Schulz-Danzig P 
Closterium didymotocum var. annulatum M.O.P.Iyengar & B.Vimala Bai P 
Closterium didymotocum var. multinucleatum Nordstedt S 
Closterium didymotocum var. brebissonianum Rabenhorst C 
Closterium didymotocum var. dacussatum (Kützing) G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium didymotocum var. delpontei Grönblad P 
Closterium didymotocum var. elenkinii Kossinskaja C 
Closterium didymotocum var. major G.H.E.W.Hieronymus P 
Closterium didymotocum var. punctulatum L.Viret P 
Closterium didymotocum var. punctulatum T.Hinode P 
Closterium didymotocum var. pygmaeum R.C.Starr P 
Closterium didymotocum var. striolatum Kurt Förster & F.Eckert P 
Closterium didymotocum var. tropicum West & G.S.West P 
Closterium didymotocum Corda ex Ralfs C 
Closterium didymotocum var. baillyanum Brébisson ex Ralfs S 
Closterium didymotocum var. alpinum Viret S 
Closterium didymotocum var. irregulare Schaarschmidt C 
Closterium didymotocum var. johnsonii (West & G.S.West) J.A.Cushman S 
Closterium didymotocum var. glabrum O.F.Borge C 
Closterium didymotocum var. maximum (Grönblad) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium didymotocum var. crassum (Grönblad) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium didymotocum f. rectum Rosa S 
Closterium difussum M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium digitus Ehrenberg S 
Closterium dilatatum Kützing P 
Closterium dilatatum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium dimoron Ehrenberg P 
Closterium directum f. gracilior R.Gutwinski U 
Closterium directum var. anastomosum (West & G.S.West) K.Förster C 
Closterium directum W.Archer C 
Closterium directum var. oligocampylum (Schmidle) Ruzicka C 
Closterium directum var. recurvatum (Roll) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium discolor M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium diversum M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium doliolatum L.A.Brébisson P 
Closterium dubium R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium eboracense var. achillense West C 
Closterium eboracense W.B.Turner C 
Closterium eboracense f. minutum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. atumidum Willi Krieger C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. grande Prescott C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. malinvernianum (De Notaris) D.B.Williamson S 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. michailovshoense Elenkin C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. magnum Prescott C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. angustum K.Förster U 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. curvatum Kant & P.Gupta C 
Closterium ehrenbergii Meneghini ex Ralfs C 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. malinvernianum (De Notaris) Rabenhorst S 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. immane Wolle C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. attenuatum N.D.Kamat C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. coloratoglabra Woronichin U 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. curtum S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. majus Irénée-Marie S 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. majus U.C.Pandey & D.C.Pandey U 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. percrassum Grönblad C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. rhodopea S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium ehrenbergii f. tenuis Venkataraman C 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. angustatum M.Hirano P 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. angustum M.Hirano P 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. atumidum f. striatum Prescott P 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. brasiliense Nordstedt C 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. bosniacum R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. concavum Schmidle P 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. minutissimum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. podolicum Gutwinski C 
Closterium ehrenbergii var. pseudopodolicum E.O.Hughes C 
Closterium elegans Brébisson S 
Closterium elenkinii Kossinskaja C 
Closterium elongatum L.A.Brébisson P 
Closterium ensis G.B.Delponte P 
Closterium ensis G.W.Focke P 
Closterium entomon Ehrenberg P 
Closterium eriense Taft C 
Closterium eriense var. minus Thérézien C 
Closterium evesiculatum P.W.Cook C 
Closterium excavatum Borge U 
Closterium exiguum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium exile West & G.S.West C 
Closterium exile var. unicrystallatum Kol C 
Closterium falcatum W.M.Grant P 
Closterium falcatum (Corda) Meneghini S 
Closterium fasciculatum J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium flaccidum Delponte C 
Closterium forte E.A.Flint & D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium fractum W.B.Turner P 
Closterium fulvum I.F.Lewis, C.Zirkle & R.Patrick C 
Closterium fuscum Skvortzov & M.Noda P 
Closterium fuscum var. gracile Skvortzov & M.Noda P 
Closterium fusiforme F.Gay C 
Closterium fusiforme f. truncata S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium galiciense Gutwinski S 
Closterium garoetianum C.Bernard P 
Closterium gibbum Borge S 
Closterium giganteum C.Bernard S 
Closterium gigas F.Gay S 
Closterium gracile var. elongatum f. coloratoglabra N.N.Woronichin P 
Closterium gracile var. [elongatum] f. longissima Nygaard C 
Closterium gracile var. tenue f. colorato-glabra Woronichin U 
Closterium gracile f. angulata Grönblad P 
Closterium gracile f. elongatum (West & G.S.West) Kossinskaja C 
Closterium gracile f. gracillima West S 
Closterium gracile f. sigmoideum Croasdale P 
Closterium gracile f. sygmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium gracile f. tenue (Lemmermann) Kossinskaja S 
Closterium gracile var. brevius M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium gracile var. coloratum Hustedt P 
Closterium gracile var. intermedium Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium gracile var. lundellii (Lagerheim) E.K.Kossinskaja C 
Closterium gracile var. capillare Chodat S 
Closterium gracile var. striolatum Krieger C 
Closterium gracile f. tenuissima Heimerl U 
Closterium gracile f. luteola Borge U 
Closterium gracile Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Closterium gracile var. bicurvatum (Delponte) Playfair C 
Closterium gracile var. elongatum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium gracile var. substrigosum (Raciborski) Playfair P 
Closterium gracile var. tenue (Lemmermann) West & G.S.West S 
Closterium gracile var. silesiacum Grönblad C 
Closterium granulatum Brébisson S 
Closterium gregarium G.G.A.Meneghini P 
Closterium griffithii Berkeley S 
Closterium groenbladii Cook C 
Closterium guyanense (Bourrelly & Couté) Coesel C 
Closterium hantzschianum Grunow P 
Closterium heimerlianum (Schmidle) Lütkemüller P 
Closterium hibernicum (West) A.J.Brook & D.M.Williamson C 
Closterium hinganicum M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium hinganicum var. rivularis M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium hirudo Delponte C 
Closterium hirudo var. hybridum Rabenhorst C 
Closterium hunanense C.-C.Jao C 
Closterium hutchinsonii M.F.Rich P 
Closterium idiosporum var. echinosporum P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium idiosporum var. punctatum W.Krieger C 
Closterium idiosporum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium inaequale Ehrenberg P 
Closterium inaequale Ehrenberg ex Ralfs P 
Closterium incrassatum R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium incurvum f. latius Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium incurvum f. major S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium incurvum var. elaboratum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium incurvum Brébisson C 
Closterium incurvum var. majus Wittrock C 
Closterium incurvum f. acutum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium incurvum f. sikkimicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium infractum f. majus W.Vyverman C 
Closterium infractum Messikommer S 
Closterium infractum var. rotundatum Grönblad U 
Closterium infractum var. sanctipaulense C.E.M.Bicudo P 
Closterium insolitum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium intermedium f. minor L.Viret P 
Closterium intermedium var. alpinum L.Viret P 
Closterium intermedium var. delicatulum T.Hinode P 
Closterium intermedium var. erectum Grönblad C 
Closterium intermedium var. latum Hustedt P 
Closterium intermedium var. mesianum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium intermedium var. nilssonii (Borge) J.Ruzicka S 
Closterium intermedium var. ornatum Skvortzov P 
Closterium intermedium var. rectostriatum Raciborski P 
Closterium intermedium f. eboracense W.Turner C 
Closterium intermedium var. sculptum Raciborski S 
Closterium intermedium var. spirostriolatum Raciborski S 
Closterium intermedium Ralfs C 
Closterium intermedium var. hibernicum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium interruptum (L.A.Brébisson) Reinsch P 
Closterium intervalicola J.A.Cushman S 
Closterium isidis F.J.Cohn P 
Closterium iuncidum f. austriaca A.Heimerl P 
Closterium japonicum Suringar S 
Closterium jenneri f. exiguum G.Beck P 
Closterium jenneri f. longior S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium jenneri f. major G.R.Cedergren P 
Closterium jenneri f. minus curvata P.S.Petkoff P 
Closterium jenneri f. opulentum G.Beck P 
Closterium jenneri var. dubitabilis M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium jenneri var. majus F.Ducellier P 
Closterium jenneri var. myrdalense K.M.Strøm P 
Closterium jenneri var. percurvatum Croasdale U 
Closterium jenneri var. [robustum] f. minor Skvortzov C 
Closterium jenneri var. tenue Croasdale C 
Closterium jenneri Ralfs C 
Closterium jenneri var. robustum G.S.West C 
Closterium jenneri var. hibernicum West S 
Closterium jenneri f. cynthia (De Notaris) A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson S 
Closterium jenneri var. curvatissimum (West & G.S.West) A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium jenneri var. cynthia (De Notaris) Petlovany C 
Closterium johnsonii West & G.S.West C 
Closterium juncidum f. robustius (Lobik) A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson S 
Closterium juncidum f. gracillima-laevissima Rabenhorst U 
Closterium juncidum var. robustius Lobik S 
Closterium juncidum var. brevius (Rabenhorst) J.Roy S 
Closterium juncidum var. elongatum J.Roy C 
Closterium juncidum Ralfs C 
Closterium juncidum var. brevior Roy C 
Closterium juncidum var. robustior Rabenhorst C 
Closterium juncidum f. rectum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium juncidum f. elongatissimum Tarnogradskii C 
Closterium juncidum f. truncatum Nygaard C 
Closterium juncidum f. brevior Rabenhorst S 
Closterium juncidum f. recta R.Gutwinski S 
Closterium juncidum subsp. elongatum (J.Roy) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi S 
Closterium juncidum var. dilatatum Y.Thérézien P 
Closterium juncidum var. gracile (L.A.Brébisson) J.E.Weiss P 
Closterium karnakense Coesel C 
Closterium keutzingii f. minus Compère P 
Closterium keutzingii var. procerum Skuja P 
Closterium khasianum W.B.Turner C 
Closterium knysnanum G.E.Huber-Pestalozzi P 
Closterium koernickei C.Bernard P 
Closterium kolhapurense N.D.Kamat C 
Closterium kolhapurense var. minus N.D.Kamat C 
Closterium kranskopense M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium kuetzingii f. brevior Dick P 
Closterium kuetzingii f. brevius A.I.Lobik C 
Closterium kuetzingii f. elongata G.R.Cedergren P 
Closterium kuetzingii f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium kuetzingii var. constrictum Skvortzov & M.Noda P 
Closterium kuetzingii var. croasdaleae (Kurt Förster) Kurt Förster P 
Closterium kuetzingii var. glacile T.Hinode P 
Closterium kuetzingii var. minus T.Hinode U 
Closterium kuetzingii var. onychosporum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium kuetzingii var. pseudopronum Grönblad P 
Closterium kuetzingii var. transvaalense M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium kuetzingii var. laeve Willi Krieger S 
Closterium kuetzingii f. minus Compère C 
Closterium kuetzingii f. croasdaleae K.Förster C 
Closterium kuetzingii Brébisson C 
Closterium kuetzingii var. capense Nordstedt C 
Closterium kuetzingii var. procerum Skuja C 
Closterium kuetzingii var. vittatum Nordstedt C 
Closterium kuetzingii var. onchyosporum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium kuetzingii var. brevisetaceum Tarnavschi & Radulescu C 
Closterium Kützingii Bréb. C 
Closterium Kützingii var. vittatum Nordst. C 
Closterium laeve Kützing S 
Closterium lagoense Nordstedt C 
Closterium lagoense var. glabrum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium lagoense var. brevius M.Hirano P 
Closterium lagoense var. crassius Gutwinski C 
Closterium lagoense var. laeve West & G.S.West P 
Closterium lamellosum Brébisson S 
Closterium lanceolatum f. angustum Hortobágyi C 
Closterium lanceolatum f. minor K.Vedajanani & Y.S.R.K.Sarma P 
Closterium lanceolatum f. parvum (West & G.S.West) E.K.Kossinskaja P 
Closterium lanceolatum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium lanceolatum var. bernardi Willi Krieger P 
Closterium lanceolatum var. majus Brébisson C 
Closterium lanceolatum var. parvum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium lanceolatum Kützing ex Ralfs C 
Closterium lanceolatum var. coloratum (G.A.Klebs) Playfair P 
Closterium laterale Nordstedt C 
Closterium laterale var. simplicius E.O.Hughes P 
Closterium laterale f. crassa A.K.M.N.Islam & Akter C 
Closterium latiusculum J.A.M.Perty P 
Closterium legumen var. brasiliense Borge P 
Closterium legumen West & G.S.West P 
Closterium leibleinii f. parva W.B.Turner C 
Closterium leibleinii f. minor W.B.Turner C 
Closterium leibleinii f. boergesenii Schmidle S 
Closterium leibleinii f. crassior Borge P 
Closterium leibleinii f. elatior M.Lewin C 
Closterium leibleinii f. major F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich U 
Closterium leibleinii f. minor (Schmidle) Rich S 
Closterium leibleinii f. nasutum L.S.Péterfi P 
Closterium leibleinii f. sigmoidea Deflandre P 
Closterium leibleinii f. willei R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium leibleinii var. angulatum F.Balsamo P 
Closterium leibleinii var. curtum West U 
Closterium leibleinii var. granulata H.Kufferath P 
Closterium leibleinii var. manchuricum Skvortzov S 
Closterium leibleinii var. montanum L.Viret P 
Closterium leibleinii var. occidentale West C 
Closterium leibleinii var. philippinense M.Hirano P 
Closterium leibleinii var. recurvatum West & G.S.West U 
Closterium leibleinii Kützing ex Ralfs C 
Closterium leibleinii var. minimum Schmidle C 
Closterium leibleinii var. cornutum Playfair S 
Closterium leibleinii var. boergesenii (Schmidle) Y.V.Roll C 
Closterium leiblenii var. nasutum Péterfi P 
Closterium lemmermanni O.Zacharias P 
Closterium lens J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium lens var. intermedia J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium lens var. major J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium lens var. minus J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium libellula f. elongatum Willi Krieger C 
Closterium libellula f. intermedium (J.Roy & Bisset) Kossinskaja S 
Closterium libellula f. sygmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium libellula subsp. interruptum (West) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium libellula var. angusticeps Grönblad C 
Closterium libellula var. gracilis H.Kufferath P 
Closterium libellula var. pulneyensis M.O.P.Iyengar & B.Vimala Bai C 
Closterium libellula var. subcylindricum f. majus (Borge) E.K.Kossinskaja P 
Closterium libellula var. elongatum A,M.Scott & Prescott C 
Closterium libellula var. intermedium (J.Roy & Bisset) G.S.West S 
Closterium libellula var. interruptum (West & G.S.West) Donat C 
Closterium libellula Focke ex Nordstedt S 
Closterium libellula var. crassum Tarnavschi & Radulescu C 
Closterium libellula var. punctatum (Raciborski) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium libellula var. sikkimense J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium libellula f. minus Beck-Mannagetta U 
Closterium limicum J.Sampaio P 
Closterium limneticum f. elongatum Compère C 
Closterium limneticum var. fallax Ruzicka C 
Closterium limneticum Lemmermann C 
Closterium limneticum var. tenue Lemmermann S 
Closterium linea Perty S 
Closterium lineare Nägeli P 
Closterium lineatum var. [minus] f. incolorato-glabra Woronichin C 
Closterium lineatum f. angustatum Reinsch P 
Closterium lineatum f. angustum Reinsch P 
Closterium lineatum f. elongatum Rosa S 
Closterium lineatum f. laeve Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium lineatum f. latius Rosa U 
Closterium lineatum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium lineatum f. spirostriolata West & G.S.West C 
Closterium lineatum f. sublaevis G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium lineatum f. tenuissimum Reinsch P 
Closterium lineatum var. costatum W.N.Hastings U 
Closterium lineatum var. gracile Behre P 
Closterium lineatum var. majus G.E.Huber-Pestalozzi P 
Closterium lineatum var. maximum B.H.Smith P 
Closterium lineatum var. minus Woronichin S 
Closterium lineatum var. monolithum A.Kurz P 
Closterium lineatum var. multinucleatum Deflandre S 
Closterium lineatum var. perporosum Grönblad P 
Closterium lineatum var. sandvicense Nordstedt C 
Closterium lineatum var. sublaeve Brébisson S 
Closterium lineatum var. subrectum M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium lineatum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium lineatum var. costatum Wolle C 
Closterium lineatum var. elongatum (Rosa) Croasdale C 
Closterium lineatum var. guyanense P.Bourrelly & Couté S 
Closterium lineatum f. minus (Woronichin) Kossinskaja P 
Closterium lineatum var. elongatissimum Prescott C 
Closterium lineatum var. africanum (Schmidle) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium lineatum f. latius (ELenkin & Lobik) Kossinkaja U 
Closterium lineatum var. latius Elenkin & Lobik S 
Closterium lineola K.E.Eichwald P 
Closterium lineolatum Ehrenberg P 
Closterium lineolatum Kützing P 
Closterium littorale f. crassius O.Borge C 
Closterium littorale f. minus L.E.Komarenko P 
Closterium littorale var. brunnea Skvortzov & M.Noda P 
Closterium littorale var. elegans (G.S.West) J.Ruzicka P 
Closterium littorale f. concavum B.Tracanna P 
Closterium littorale var. indicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium littorale F.Gay C 
Closterium littorale var. crassum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium loefgrenii Borge P 
Closterium loktakense Brühl & Biswas C 
Closterium londaensis Bharati & Gonzalves C 
Closterium lorentzi C.Bernard P 
Closterium luchterianum P.Palik P 
Closterium lundellii Lagerheim S 
Closterium lundellii var. gibbum (Borge) Petlovany C 
Closterium lunula var. coloratum G.A.Klebs S 
Closterium lunula var. giganteum (Nordstedt) A.J.Brook & D.J.Williamson C 
Closterium lunula f. levanderi Grönblad P 
Closterium lunula f. straminellum Uherkovich P 
Closterium lunula f. biconvexum (Schmidle) Kossinskaja S 
Closterium lunula f. coloratum (G.A.Klebs) Kossinskaja S 
Closterium lunula f. farcinalis Schmidle P 
Closterium lunula f. gracile Messikommer C 
Closterium lunula f. minus West & G.S.West S 
Closterium lunula f. retusum Péterfi C 
Closterium lunula var. carinthiacum Beck-Mannagetta C 
Closterium lunula var. crameri (C.Bernard) P.H.G.Oye P 
Closterium lunula var. cuneatum R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium lunula f. crassissimum Croasdale U 
Closterium lunula var. maximum f. striata P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium lunula var. praegrande (Rabenhorst) Petit S 
Closterium lunula var. pseudoacerosum Prescott P 
Closterium lunula var. rectum M.Norda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium lunula var. striatum Wolle P 
Closterium lunula var. uniseriatum (G.A.Klebs ) Teodoresco P 
Closterium lunula Ehrenberg & Hemprich ex Ralfs C - type
Closterium lunula var. intermedium Gutwinski C 
Closterium lunula var. massartii (De Wildeman) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium lunula f. nasutum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Closterium lunula var. maximum O.Borge C 
Closterium lunula var. mourense Playfair C 
Closterium lunula var. submoniliferum G.A.Klebs C 
Closterium lunula var. biconvexum Schmidle C 
Closterium lunula var. giganteum (C.Bernard) Playfair C 
Closterium lunula f. nasutum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Closterium lunula var. retusum Péterfi C 
Closterium lunula var. sublanceolatum Klebs C 
Closterium lusitanicum G.A.S.F.Sampaio S 
Closterium lusitanicum var. minus J.Sampaio P 
Closterium macedonicum S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium macilentum var. coloratum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium macilentum f. adultior A.Kurz P 
Closterium macilentum var. elongatum E.N.Lacoste de Díaz P 
Closterium macilentum var. inflatulum Kurt Förster P 
Closterium macilentum var. kavinae K.Rosa P 
Closterium macilentum var. minus S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium macilentum var. simplissimum Prescott C 
Closterium macilentum var. gracile Bourrelly C 
Closterium macilentum var. substriatum (Grönblad) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium macilentum var. coloratum Elenkin & Lobik C 
Closterium macilentum Brébisson C 
Closterium macilentum var. japonicum (Suringar) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium macilentum var. substrigosum Raciborski S 
Closterium maculatum W.N.Hastings P 
Closterium magellanicum Borge P 
Closterium magnificum Playfair C 
Closterium maharastrense N.D.Kamat C 
Closterium malinvernianiforme var. gracilius E.O.Hughes C 
Closterium malinvernianiforme var. nasutum P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium malinvernianiforme Grönblad C 
Closterium malinvernianum De Notaris S 
Closterium malinvernianum f. inflata Virieux S 
Closterium malinvernianum f. major P 
Closterium malinvernianum f. sygmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium malinvernianum f. typica Virieux S 
Closterium malinvernicum G.De Notaris P 
Closterium malmei var. malmei f. minor Y.Thérézien P 
Closterium malmei O.Borge C 
Closterium malmei var. semicirculare O.Borge C 
Closterium mamenchoanum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium manipurense Brühl & Biswas C 
Closterium manschuricum Skvortzov C 
Closterium margaritaceum Ehrenberg S 
Closterium margaritiferum K.E.Eichwald P 
Closterium massarti E.A.J.De Wildeman P 
Closterium massartii De Wildeman S 
Closterium maximum (H.C.Wood) Schmidle P 
Closterium maximum E.A.J.De Wildeman P 
Closterium medioleve W.Archer C 
Closterium methueni F.E.Fritsch C 
Closterium methueni var. ventricosa F.E.Fritsch C 
Closterium microgranulatum H.Kufferath P 
Closterium milliani M.Lefèvre P 
Closterium minianum G.A.S.F.Sampaio P 
Closterium minutum f. tenuior G.E.Huber-Pestalozzi P 
Closterium minutum Y.V.Roll C 
Closterium minutum var. indicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium modesta Kant & P.Gupta C 
Closterium molle Playfair C 
Closterium monile Brébisson ex Kützing U 
Closterium moniliferum var. moniliferum f. gracile Kurt Förster P 
Closterium moniliferum var. minus Kützing P 
Closterium moniliferum f. angulatum Reinsch P 
Closterium moniliferum f. boryanum Reinsch P 
Closterium moniliferum f. ehrenbergianum Reinsch P 
Closterium moniliferum f. giganteum K.Förster S 
Closterium moniliferum f. intermedia R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium moniliferum f. kuetzingiana J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium moniliferum f. leibleiniana J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium moniliferum f. leibleinii (Kützing) Reinsch P 
Closterium moniliferum f. minor T.Hortobágyi P 
Closterium moniliferum f. muelleriana J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium moniliferum var. acutum Willi Krieger & A.M.Scott U 
Closterium moniliferum var. angulatum (P.F.Reinsch) G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium moniliferum var. angustatum (C.A.Hantzsch) G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium moniliferum var. elegans M.Hirano P 
Closterium moniliferum var. epithemioides M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium moniliferum var. galiciense (R.Gutwinski) G.S.West U 
Closterium moniliferum var. genuinum E.O.O.Kirchner P 
Closterium moniliferum var. leibleiniaceum G.De Notaris & F.Baglietto P 
Closterium moniliferum var. malinvernianiforme (Grönblad) Kossinskaja S 
Closterium moniliferum var. minus H.Alten P 
Closterium moniliferum var. nanum Grönblad C 
Closterium moniliferum var. nasutum M.F.Rich C 
Closterium moniliferum var. recurvatum Borge C 
Closterium moniliferum var. robustum T.Hinode P 
Closterium moniliferum var. thuretii Brébisson C 
Closterium moniliferum f. minor K.M.Strøm P 
Closterium moniliferum var. subrectum Poljansky U 
Closterium moniliferum var. giganteum (K.Förster) K.Förster C 
Closterium moniliferum f. colorato-striata Woronichin U 
Closterium moniliferum f. incolorato-striata Woronichin U 
Closterium moniliferum f. incolorato-glabra Woronichin U 
Closterium moniliferum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium moniliferum var. submoniliferum (Woronchin) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium moniliferum var. concavum Klebs C 
Closterium monotaenium W.Archer C 
Closterium mourense Playfair S 
Closterium multistriatum F.G.Hemprich & Ehrenberg P 
Closterium nasutum Nordstedt ex Wolle C 
Closterium nasutum var. kazukoae Kanetsuna P 
Closterium nasutum var. kazukoae Y.Kanetsuna P 
Closterium navicula f. duplo-major J.Roubal U 
Closterium navicula f. major F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich U 
Closterium navicula f. pyrenoidosum L.S.Péterfi P 
Closterium navicula var. tumidum Willi Krieger & P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium navicula (Brébisson) Lütkemüller C 
Closterium navicula var. crassum (West & G.S.West) Grönblad C 
Closterium navicula var. granulatum (West & G.S.West) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium navicula var. pyrenoidosum Péterfi P 
Closterium navicula f. minus G.Beck & Lerchenau C 
Closterium navicula var. inflatum (W.West & G.S.West) Croasdale S 
Closterium navicula var. subcompactum (West & G.S.West) W.Krieger U 
Closterium naviculoides J.N.F.Wille P 
Closterium naviculoideum Playfair U 
Closterium nematodes Joshua C 
Closterium nematodes var. proboscideum W.B.Turner C 
Closterium nematodes var. tumidum G.S.West C 
Closterium nematodes f. majus Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium nematodes var. proboscideum f. minor F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich P 
Closterium nematodes var. microteres Skuja P 
Closterium nematodes var. robustum M.Hirano C 
Closterium nematodes var. sinense C.-C.Jao C 
Closterium nematodes f. kriegeri Y.Kanetsuna P 
Closterium nematodes var. nematodes f. kriegeri Kanetsuna P 
Closterium nilsonii O.Borge S 
Closterium nilssonii Borge S 
Cosmarium nilssonii M.Lewin C 
Closterium nodosum J.W.Bailey P 
Closterium nordstedtii Gutwinski U 
Closterium nordstedtii Chodat C 
Closterium nordstedtii var. polystichum (Nygaard) Ruzicka C 
Closterium novae-angliae J.A.Cushman S 
Closterium novae-guineae C.Bernard P 
Closterium nylandicum (Grönblad) A.J.Brook & D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium obtusangulum A.K.J.Corda C 
Closterium obtusum var. major Raciborski P 
Closterium obtusum var. minus Raciborski P 
Closterium obtusum var. rectissimum C.Bernard P 
Closterium obtusum Brébisson S 
Closterium obversum K.E.Eichwald P 
Closterium okaritoense E.A.Flint & D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium okavangicum Coesel & Van Geest C 
Closterium oligocampylum f. tenuior J.Roubal C 
Closterium oligocampylum Schmidle S 
Closterium oncosporum Nordstedt C 
Closterium ornatum G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium pachydermum West & G.S.West U 
Closterium pakistanicum Masud-ul-Hassan, T.Rasool & M.Nizamuddin C 
Closterium paludosum Thunmark U 
Closterium paradoxum Wille C 
Closterium parasiticum G.G.A.Meneghini P 
Closterium parvulum f. major F.Auclair P 
Closterium parvulum f. major K.M.Strøm P 
Closterium parvulum f. major Y.V.Roll P 
Closterium parvulum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium parvulum var. angustissimum T.Hinode P 
Closterium parvulum var. crassius C.Bernard P 
Closterium parvulum var. flaccidum (Delponte) E.K.Kossinskaja S 
Closterium parvulum var. minus Claassen C 
Closterium parvulum var. obtusum Croasdale C 
Closterium parvulum var. robustum Messikommer P 
Closterium parvulum var. tumidum Nygaard P 
Closterium parvulum f. maius Schmidle S 
Closterium parvulum var. taylorii D.CJackson C 
Closterium parvulum f. maximum Prescott C 
Closterium parvulum var. minus Kant & P.Gupta U 
Closterium parvulum Nägeli C 
Closterium parvulum var. angustum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium parvulum var. cornutum (Playfair) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium parvulum var. maius (Schmidle) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium parvulum var. tortum (B.M.Griffiths) Skuja S 
Closterium parvulum f. minor Nägeli C 
Closterium parvulum f. indicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium pegleri F.E.Fritsch C 
Closterium penium Reinsch P 
Closterium peracerosum var. aethiopicum f. curvata F.E.Fritsch P 
Closterium peracerosum var. [elegans] f. incolorato-glabra Woronichin C 
Closterium peracerosum var. aethiopicum West & G.S.West P 
Closterium peracerosum var. arcuatus F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich C 
Closterium peracerosum F.Gay C 
Closterium peracerosum var. elegans G.S.West S 
Closterium perminutum Borge P 
Closterium pithardianum var. lerschii E.Kol P 
Closterium planum E.O.Hughes C 
Closterium pleurodermatum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium polymorphum Perty S 
Closterium polystichum var. patagonicum Whelden C 
Closterium polystichum var. nordstedtii (Chodat) W.Krieger S 
Closterium polystichum Nygaard S 
Closterium polystictum Nygaard P 
Closterium polystictum var. brevius Behre P 
Closterium polystictum var. breviusculum Nygaard P 
Closterium porrectum var. borgei K.Förster U 
Closterium porrectum Nordstedt C 
Closterium porrectum var. angustatum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium praegrande Rabenhorst C 
Closterium praelongum var. brevius f. colorato-glabra Woronichin C 
Closterium praelongum var. [brevius] f. colorato-punctata Woronichin C 
Closterium praelongum var. [brevius] f. colorato-striata Woronichin C 
Closterium praelongum var. [brevius] f. incolorato-glabra Woronichin C 
Closterium praelongum subsp. brevius (Nordstedt) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi S 
Closterium praelongum var. crassior Schmidle P 
Closterium praelongum var. punctatum K.Rosa P 
Closterium praelongum var. rectum Lemmermann P 
Closterium praelongum Brébisson C 
Closterium praelongum var. brevius (Nordstedt) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium praelongum f. brevius West C 
Closterium praelongum var. strigosum (Brébisson) Playfair S 
Closterium praelongum var. porosum W.Krieger S 
Closterium praelongum f. brevius Nordstedt S 
Closterium praelongum f. longissimum Prescott C 
Closterium pritchardianum var. africanum (Fritsch & Rich) W.Krieger U 
Closterium pritchardianum var. [oligopunctatum] f. maximum Uherkovich C 
Closterium pritchardianum var. pritchardianum f. laeve E.O.Hughes P 
Closterium pritchardianum f. attenuatum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium pritchardianum f. brasiliense Kurt Förster & F.Eckert P 
Closterium pritchardianum f. crassa R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium pritchardianum f. maxima Nordstedt C 
Closterium pritchardianum f. micro-punctata Messikommer C 
Closterium pritchardianum f. minor P 
Closterium pritchardianum var. angustatum K.Rosa P 
Closterium pritchardianum var. angustum Borzécki C 
Closterium pritchardianum var. madagascariense F.E.Fritsch C 
Closterium pritchardianum var. minus West C 
Closterium pritchardianum var. oligopunctatum Y.V.Roll C 
Closterium pritchardianum var. subpraelongum Grönblad P 
Closterium pritchardianum f. punctatum A.K.M.N.Islam & Akter C 
Closterium pritchardianum W.Archer C 
Closterium pritchardianum var. alpinum Schmidle C 
Closterium proboscideum W.B.Turner P 
Closterium prolongum M.F.Rich P 
Closterium prolongum var. maior Péterfi, Robert, Nagy-Tóth P 
Closterium pronum Brébisson C 
Closterium pronum f. hyalina Raciborski C 
Closterium pronum var. longissimum Lemmermann S 
Closterium pronum f. brevius (West) Kossinskaja P 
Closterium pronum f. brebissonii Reinsch P 
Closterium pronum f. brevius West S 
Closterium pronum f. hylina Raciborski P 
Closterium pronum f. plurilocellata N.N.Woronichin P 
Closterium pronum f. pritshardianum (W.Archer) Reinsch P 
Closterium pronum f. tenerrimum Reinsch P 
Closterium pronum f. sigmoideum Woronichin C 
Closterium pronum var. raphidioideum N.M.Gaidukov P 
Closterium pronum var. fresenii Rabenhorst U 
Closterium pronum var. acutum G.A.Klebs P 
Closterium pronum var. protuberans Bolochonzew U 
Closterium pseudanastomosum Grönblad P 
Closterium pseudoclosterium J.Roy S 
Closterium pseudocostatum J.Stastný & F.A.C.Kouwets C 
Closterium pseudocynthia J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium pseudodianae var. curvatum Kant & P.Gupta C 
Closterium pseudodianae J.Roy S 
Closterium pseudoincurvum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium pseudokuetzingii D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium pseudoleibleinii M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium pseudolibellula f. fusiformis P 
Closterium pseudolibellula F.E.Fritsch S 
Closterium pseudolunula var. concavum Kurt Förster & F.Eckert P 
Closterium pseudolunula var. majus Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium pseudolunula var. spetsbergense (Borge) Petlovany C 
Closterium pseudolunula var. pseudolibellula (Fritsch) W.Krieger U 
Closterium pseudolunula O.Borge C 
Closterium pseudonasutum C.-C.Jao C 
Closterium pseudopenium Grönblad P 
Closterium pseudopusillum Messikommer C 
Closterium pseudopygmaeum Kouwets C 
Closterium pseudospirotaenium var. variabile Lemmermann S 
Closterium pseudospirotaenium var. fasciculatum Lemmermann P 
Closterium pseudoturgidum R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium pulchellum var. burmense West & G.S.West U 
Closterium pulchellum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium pulchellum f. grande Prescott C 
Closterium punctatum Skuja S 
Closterium punctatum R.Gistl P 
Closterium pusillum var. monolithum f. terrestre Skuja P 
Closterium pusillum var. applanatum Willi Krieger & P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium pusillum var. major J.Roy & J.Bisset P 
Closterium pusillum var. minus V.Allorge & P.Allorge S 
Closterium pusillum var. subrectum West & G.S.West P 
Closterium pusillum f. brevior Borge S 
Closterium pusillum Hantzsch C 
Closterium pusillum var. laticeps Grönblad C 
Closterium pusillum var. majus Raciborski C 
Closterium pusillum var. monolithum Wittrock S 
Closterium pussillum var. major Raciborski P 
Closterium pussillum var. minus Raciborski P 
Closterium pygmaeum Gutwinski C 
Closterium quadrangulare A.K.J.Corda C 
Closterium ralfsii var. hybridum f. bohemicum K.Rosa P 
Closterium ralfsii var. [hybridum] f. costata E.N.Lacoste de Díaz C 
Closterium ralfsii f. laeve Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium ralfsii var. hybridum f. major West & G.S.West P 
Closterium ralfsii f. procerum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium ralfsii var. hybridum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium ralfsii f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie U 
Closterium ralfsii var. glentigianum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium ralfsii var. immane J.A.Cushman S 
Closterium ralfsii var. kriegeri E.O.Hughes C 
Closterium ralfsii var. major F.J.Cohn P 
Closterium ralfsii var. minus M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium ralfsii var. nodosum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium ralfsii var. subpunctatum Croasdale C 
Closterium ralfsii var. subralfsii M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium ralfsii Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Closterium ralfsii var. hybridum Rabenhorst C 
Closterium ralfsii var. pterosporum Bourrelly C 
Closterium ralfsii var. typicum Klebs S 
Closterium ralfsii var. gracilius (Maskell) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium ralfsii var. delpontei Klebs S 
Closterium ralfsii var. novae-angliae (J.A.Cushman) W.Krieger C 
Closterium ranunculi I.F.Lewis, C.Zirkle & R.Patrick C 
Closterium rectimarginatum var. andamense B.N.Prasad & P.K.Misra C 
Closterium rectimarginatum var. maius N.D.Kamat C 
Closterium rectimarginatum f. indicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium rectimarginatum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Closterium rectum R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium recurvatum Roll S 
Closterium recurvum Prescott C 
Closterium refractum G.B.Delponte P 
Closterium regulare var. dilatatum Schmidle P 
Closterium regulare Brébisson C 
Closterium regulare f. minus K.Förster C 
Closterium rehrenbergii f. elevatum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium reticulatum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium retusum G.G.A.Meneghini P 
Closterium robustum W.N.Hastings P 
Closterium rostratum var. [angustatum-glabrum] f. incolorato Woronichin U 
Closterium rostratum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium rostratum var. brevirostratum West C 
Closterium rostratum var. sikkimicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium rostratum var. brevirostratum f. longior S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium rostratum f. angustior R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium rostratum f. brevirostratum (West) E.K.Kossinskaja P 
Closterium rostratum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium rostratum var. angustatum Y.V.Roll C 
Closterium rostratum var. laeve P.Capdevielle S 
Closterium rostratum var. laevigatum Brébisson C 
Closterium rostratum var. mammosisporum Kurt Förster P 
Closterium rostratum var. minus Y.V.Roll P 
Closterium rostratum var. extensum Prescott C 
Closterium rostratum var. subrostratum (Willi Krieger) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium rostratum var. longirostratum Eggert C 
Closterium rostratum var. borgei W.Krieger U 
Closterium rostratum var. oncosporum (Nordstedt) W.Krieger S 
Closterium ruficeps Ehrenberg P 
Closterium rugosum N.Woodhead & R.D.Tweed U 
Closterium s-romanum Huber-Pestalozzi U 
Closterium sceptrum Kützing S 
Closterium schroederi J.Woloszynska P 
Closterium schweickerdtii Claassen C 
Closterium scoticum var. fusiforme W.B.Turner S 
Closterium scoticum W.B.Turner C 
Closterium selenaeum Maskell C 
Closterium selenastroides Roll C 
Closterium selenastrum M.Wanatabe U 
Closterium semicirculare Willi Krieger & A.M.Scott C 
Closterium setaceum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium setaceum var. elongatum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium setaceum var. vittatum Grönblad C 
Closterium setaceum f. rectum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium setaceum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium setaceum var. intermedium (Kützing) G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium setaceum var. rectum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium setaceum var. rollii E.K.Kossinskaja P 
Closterium sigmoideum f. major West & G.S.West P 
Closterium sigmoideum Lagerheim & Nordstedt S 
Closterium sikkimicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium silesiacum Grönblad P 
Closterium siliqua var. turgidum T.Hinode P 
Closterium siliqua West & G.S.West C 
Closterium sinense Lütkemüller C 
Closterium sinuosum D.B.Williamson C 
Closterium soroksariense M.Halász C 
Closterium spetsbergense f. maius Croasdale C 
Closterium spetsbergense f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium spetsbergense f. longius Poljansky C 
Closterium spetsbergense f. major P.Schulz-Danzig P 
Closterium spetsbergense f. manshurica Skvortzov P 
Closterium spetsbergense var. africanum F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich S 
Closterium spetsbergense var. australe G.I.Playfair P 
Closterium spetsbergense var. laticeps Grönblad C 
Closterium spetsbergense var. subafricanum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium spetsbergense var. subspetsbergense (Woronichin) Kossinskaja C 
Closterium spetsbergense Borge S 
Closterium spetzbergense var. australe Playfair C 
Closterium spetzbergense var. palustre Playfair C 
Closterium sphaerosporum (G.S.West) A.J.Brook C 
Closterium spinosporum var. minus W.Hodgetts P 
Closterium spinosporum W.Hodgetts C 
Closterium spinosporum var. crassum M.Wanatabe U 
Closterium spinosporum var. malayense M.Wanatabe U 
Closterium spinosporum var. ryukyuense M.Wanatabe U 
Closterium spirale A.K.J.Corda P 
Closterium spirale Corda P 
Closterium spiraliferum J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium spiraliforme Schroeder C 
Closterium squamatum Ehrenberg P 
Closterium stellenboschense W.Hodgetts S 
Closterium striatum K.P.Biswas P 
Closterium strigosum f. brevior S.P.Petkoff P 
Closterium strigosum f. minor C.C.Jao P 
Closterium strigosum subsp. elegans (G.S.West) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi S 
Closterium strigosum var. arcuatum W.Krieger U 
Closterium strigosum Brébisson C 
Closterium strigosum var. elegans (G.S.West) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium striolatum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium striolatum var. borgei Willi Krieger S 
Closterium striolatum var. typicum G.A.Klebs C 
Closterium striolatum f. rectum West S 
Closterium striolatum var. erectum Klebs C 
Closterium striolatum var. subtruncatum (West & G.S.West) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium striolatum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium striolatum f. attenuatum P.E.E.Kaiser P 
Closterium striolatum f. minor K.E.Hirn P 
Closterium striolatum f. tumida J.N.F.Wille P 
Closterium striolatum var. alpinum L.Viret P 
Closterium striolatum var. crenulatum J.E.Weiss P 
Closterium striolatum var. elongatum G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium striolatum var. genuinum E.O.O.Kirchner P 
Closterium striolatum var. hinganicum M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium striolatum var. intermedium (Ralfs) J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium striolatum var. latior K.Rosa P 
Closterium striolatum var. monolithum L.Viret P 
Closterium striolatum var. nylstromicum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium striolatum var. orthonotum J.Roy S 
Closterium striolatum var. rectum (West) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium striolatum var. robustum West & G.S.West P 
Closterium striolatum var. sitvense R.Gutwinski U 
Closterium striolatum var. spirostriolatum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium striolatum var. subcostatum Borge P 
Closterium striolatum var. subjuncida (G.De Notaris) J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium striolatum var. subnylstromicum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium striolatum var. subpunctatum M.Hirano C 
Closterium striolatum var. tumidum G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium striolatum var. ulna (G.W.Focke) Jacobsen P 
Closterium striolatum var. unogranulatum M.Noda & Skvortzov P 
Closterium striolatum var. vulgaris J.P.Jacobsen P 
Closterium striolatum var. costatum (Corda) Klebs P 
Closterium striolatum var. subdirectum (West) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium subacutum G.A.S.F.Sampaio P 
Closterium subangulatum R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium subangustatum West P 
Closterium subbiclavatum Lacoste de Díaz C 
Closterium subcapitatum West & G.S.West P 
Closterium subcompactum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium subcoronulatum No authority known U 
Closterium subcostatum Nordstedt C 
Closterium subcostatum var. dilatatum Borge P 
Closterium subcostatum Alcorn S 
Closterium subcrassum W.B.Turner C 
Closterium subdecorum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium subdirectum West S 
Closterium subfusiforme Messikommer C 
Closterium subgibbum Y.V.Roll S 
Closterium subjuncidiforme var. attenuatum Messikommer ex Ruzicka C 
Closterium subjuncidiforme Grönblad C 
Closterium subjuncidum f. minor Raciborski S 
Closterium subjuncidum De Notaris U 
Closterium sublagoense M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium sublanceolatum N.N.Woronichin P 
Closterium sublaterale Ruzicka C 
Closterium sublatifrons G.S.West C 
Closterium sublineatum R.Gutwinski U 
Closterium submalinvernianum N.N.Woronichin P 
Closterium submoniliferum Woronichin [Voronichin] S 
Closterium submoniliferum var. malinvernianum (De Notaris) Coesel C 
Closterium suborbiculare f. bicyclicum M.Schmidt U 
Closterium subporrectum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium subpronum var. lacustre Lemmermann S 
Closterium subpronum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium subrectum Brébisson S 
Closterium subrostratum var. groenbladii P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium subrostratum Willi Krieger C 
Closterium subscoticiforme Grönblad S 
Closterium subscoticum var. subscoticiforme (Grönblad) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium subscoticum Gutwinski C 
Closterium subsiliqua M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium subspetsbergense Woronichin S 
Closterium subspetzbergense f. colorato-glabra Woronichin U 
Closterium subspetzbergense f. colorato-striato-punctata Woronichin U 
Closterium subspetzbergense f. incolorato-glabra Woronichin U 
Closterium subspetzbergense N.N.Woronichin P 
Closterium substrigosum (Raciborski) West & G.S.West U 
Closterium subtile Brébisson C 
Closterium subtruncatum West & G.S.West S 
Closterium subturgidum Nordstedt P 
Closterium subulatum f. angustum Compère C 
Closterium subulatum var. controversum L.A.Brébisson P 
Closterium subulatum var. latior Y.V.Roll P 
Closterium subulatum var. minus Willi Krieger & P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium subulatum var. sigmoideum N.Woodhead & R.D.Tweed P 
Closterium subulatum (Kützing) Brébisson C 
Closterium subulatum var. majus Krieger C 
Closterium subulatum var. striolatum A.K.M.N.Islam & Akter U 
Closterium sulcatum L.A.Brébisson P 
Closterium tacomense Prescott C 
Closterium tenerrimum Kützing P 
Closterium tenerrimum Kützing ex Ralfs S 
Closterium tenerum N.N.Woronichin P 
Closterium tenue Kützing P 
Closterium tenuissimum M.Schmidt U 
Closterium tetractinium F.Gay C 
Closterium thureti L.A.Brébisson P 
Closterium tortitaenioides Coesel C 
Closterium tortum B.M.Griffiths C 
Closterium toxon West C 
Closterium toxon var. longum A.K.M.N.Islam & Akter S 
Closterium toxon f. elongata West & G.S.West P 
Closterium toxon f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium toxon var. validum West C 
Closterium trabecula Ehrenberg S 
Closterium trabeculoides Corda C 
Closterium trochiscosporum West & G.S.West P 
Closterium truncatulum Y.V.Roll P 
Closterium truncatum L.A.Brébisson P 
Closterium truncatum Claassen U 
Closterium truncatum W.B.Turner U 
Closterium tumidulum f. truncatum Kurt Förster P 
Closterium tumidulum F.Gay C 
Closterium tumidulum f. indicum J.P.Keshri & D.Das C 
Closterium tumidum var. erectum A.K.M.N.Islam & Akter S 
Closterium tumidum L.N.Johnson C 
Closterium tumidum var. nylandicum Grönblad S 
Closterium tumidum var. sphaerosporum G.S.West C 
Closterium tumidum var. nylandicum f. borgeanum Kurt Förster & F.Eckert P 
Closterium tumidum f. macrosporum W.R.Taylor C 
Closterium tumidum f. elongata D.Milovanovic P 
Closterium tumidum f. maior K.P.Biswas C 
Closterium tumidum f. majus Irénée-Marie S 
Closterium tumidum f. minus Strøm C 
Closterium tumidum var. angustum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium tumidum var. koreana Skvortzov P 
Closterium tumidum var. striatum Bourrelly C 
Closterium tumidum var. gigantum Nordstedt C 
Closterium tumidum f. irenee-mariei Prescott C 
Closterium turgidulum Kützing P 
Closterium turgidulum Kützing ex Ralfs P 
Closterium turgidum f. brasiliensis Nordstedt C 
Closterium turgidum f. intermedium J.A.Cushman P 
Closterium turgidum f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium turgidum var. borgei Deflandre C 
Closterium turgidum var. costulatum P.Bourrelly P 
Closterium turgidum var. decoratum West P 
Closterium turgidum var. [giganteum] f. bohemicum K.Rosa C 
Closterium turgidum var. groenbladii Schulz-Danzig P 
Closterium turgidum var. kuetzingii G.Rabenhorst P 
Closterium turgidum var. didymotocum (Corda) Klebs P 
Closterium turgidum subsp. giganteum Nordstedt S 
Closterium turgidum var. giganteum f. minor Borge U 
Closterium turgidum f. attenuatum Eichler U 
Closterium turgidum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Closterium turgidum f. glabra Gutwinski C 
Closterium turgidum var. giganteum (Nordstedt) De Toni S 
Closterium ulna f. minor Raciborski C 
Closterium ulna Focke ex W.B.Turner S 
Closterium ulna f. minus J.Roubal P 
Closterium ulna var. multinucleatum Deflandre S 
Closterium ulna var. robusta P.Palik P 
Closterium ulna var. anastomosum (West & G.S.West) W. Krieger S 
Closterium ulna f. striatum Prescott C 
Closterium ulna var. recurvatum (Roll) Krieger P 
Closterium ulna f. maius Prescott C 
Closterium ulna var. striolatum-punctatum Elenkin C 
Closterium ulna var. oligocampylum (Schmidle) W.Krieger S 
Closterium ulnoides G.A.S.F.Sampaio P 
Closterium ulva var. constrictum K.M.Strøm P 
Closterium uncinatum Kützing P 
Closterium uncinatum Kützing ex Ralfs P 
Closterium validum West & G.S.West C 
Closterium variabile A.J.Brook C 
Closterium varzinense J.Sampaio S 
Closterium venus f. majus Fedorov U 
Closterium venus f. latum Irénée-Marie C 
Closterium venus f. majus K.M.Strøm C 
Closterium venus f. minus Irénée-Marie U 
Closterium venus f. minus Y.V.Roll C 
Closterium venus f. sigmoideum Irénée-Marie P 
Closterium venus f. torta (B.M.Griffiths) Nygaard P 
Closterium venus f. tumida J.Ruzicka P 
Closterium venus subsp. crassum F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium venus subsp. croasdalei F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium venus subsp. incurvum (L.A.Brébisson) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium venus subsp. maior (K.M.Strøm) F.M.Sarim & M.A.F.Faridi P 
Closterium venus var. debegenicum Cholnoky C 
Closterium venus f. novum R.Lenzenweger C 
Closterium venus Kützing ex Ralfs C 
Closterium venus var. inflatum Claassen C 
Closterium venus var. westii Willi Krieger C 
Closterium venus f. tortum (Gulf) Nygaard S 
Closterium venus var. incurvum (Brébisson) Willi Krieger S 
Closterium venus var. verrucosum (Y.V.Roll) Willi Krieger C 
Closterium venus var. apollonionis Croasdale C 
Closterium venus var. crassum Croasdale C 
Closterium verrucosum Bailey S 
Closterium verrucosum Y.V.Roll S 
Closterium versteegianum C.Bernard P 
Closterium vulcanicum Skvortzov & M.Noda P 
Closterium wagae R.Gutwinski P 
Closterium wallichii W.B.Turner C 
Closterium warmbadianum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium warmbadianum var. porulosum M.I.Claassen P 
Closterium wittrockianum var. africana Schmidle S 
Closterium wittrockianum W.B.Turner C 
Closterium wittrockii W.B.Turner P 

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Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 12 September 2013 by M.D. Guiry

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Citing AlgaeBase
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 April 2017.

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