149,967 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,386 images, 57,648 bibliographic items, 380,221 distributional records.

Spirogyra Link, 1820, nom. cons.

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Conjugatophyceae (Zygnematophyceae)
Order Zygnematales
Family Zygnemataceae

Lectotype species: Spirogyra porticalis (O.F.Müller) Dumortier

Original publication:Nees, C.G. (1820). Horae physicae Berolinenses collectae ex symbolis virorum doctorum H. Linkii...; edicuravit Christianus Godof. Nees ab Esenbeck.. pp. [i-xii], 1-123, [4], 27 pls. Bonnae [Bonn]: Sumtibus Adolphi Marcus.
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Type designated in Silva, P.C. (1952). A review of nomenclatural conservation in the algae from the point of view of the type method. University of California Publications in Botany 25: 241-323.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Guiry, M.D. (2013). Taxonomy and nomenclature of the Conjugatophyceae (=Zygnematophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 28: 1-29.

Description: Thalli comprised of unbranched uniseriate filaments intertwined to form skeins. Cells cylindrical, 10 to >200 µm in diameter, most 20 to 60 µm, up to several times as long; cell wall two-layered with inner cellulose, outer mucilage layer that makes filaments very slimy to touch; end walls plane; no flagellated stages. Basal cells infrequently with rhizoidal holdfasts. End walls with several layers: outer mucilaginous, inner cellulose; flat (plane) in 75% of species or cup-like infolding (replicate) in 25%; cells of replicate species narrower than plane species. Cells may contain crystalline inclusions including aragonite. Cells uninucleate; chloroplasts from 1-15 per cell, number uniform in cells within filament; plastids ribbonlike, coiled, pressed against cell wall within parietal layer of cytoplasm, edges ruffled, and many disc-shaped pyrenoids. Cytoplasmic strands support centrally located nucleus within central vacuole. Chromosomes (n=3 to 84) mostly dotlike (<1.5 µm), rarely rodlike (>4 µm). Nucleolar organizing chromosomes with satellites often conspicuous at anaphase. Akinetes, and aplanospores common; parthenospores less so. Sexual reproduction by conjugation, typically in late spring and summer, mostly scalariform: parallel filaments align, outgrowths (papillae) from cells of one or both filaments in pair fuse to form conjugation tubes; series of tubes along filaments forms ladderlike structure. Protoplasts of adjacent cells contract, become nonflagellated gametes. Typically male gamete moves in amoeboid fashion through tube to fuse with the female; gametes thus morphologicallly identical, physiologically anisogamous gametes; male and female gametes may form in cells of either filament (cross conjugation). Lateral conjugation occurs in some species adjacent cells in same filament joined by curved conjugation tube. Conjugation usually homothallic (between filaments from same clonal culture); heterothallic (interclonal) conjugation reported, frequency in nature unknown. Life cycle haplobiontic; meiosis zygotic; three of four haploid nuclei disintegrate and single germling emerges. Chloroplast from male gamete disintegrates, maternal plastid persists. Zygospores yellow to brown, most often ellipsoid, but some ovoid, lenticular, or spherical. Zygospores with three wall layers: exospore (outer), mesospore (middle), and endospore (inner); mesospore smooth or variously ornamented, crucial to species identification. Exo- and endospores walls cellulose, gelatinous, or both; mesospore wall contains sporopollenin.

Information contributed by: R.M. McCourt & R.W. Howshaw. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 19 Oct 2015 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Widespread in freshwater habitats; reported from all continents; tropical to arctic climates. Filaments annual, with burst of growth in spring. Filaments usually found as free-floating masses, also frequently attached to substrate. Habitats include ponds, slow-moving streams, backwaters, roadside ditches, swift-flowing rivers. Occurs frequently in stagnant but aerobic habitats, in floating or submerged mats. Competition with other algae reported. Primary producer but role in food chain largely unstudied; preyed upon by herbivirous fish, fungi, and protozoans. No major economic use. Occasional blooms reported, and may be nuisance weed in water supplies. Widely used in experimental studies: role of dictyosome vesicles in formation of cell walls and external mucilage sheath; chloroplast growth and coiling responses under microbeam illumination; role of phytochrome in rhizoid differentiation. Filaments show endogenous rhythmic movements in response to varying light intensities. Fossil zygospores of Spirogyra and other Zygnemataceae common, oldest from Carboniferous (>300 million years b.p.). Zygospores used in paleoecological studies as markers for clean, oxygen-rich, shallow stagnant, mesotrophic water in habitats subject to seasonal warming. Some species tolerate high heavy-metal concentrations. Polyploidy occurs within clonal lineages in laboratory and mostly likely in nature; ploidal change correlates with marked changes in quantitative morphological features, e.g., cell width, which is used to distinguish species. Thus, several ploidal levels in clonal culture or in field collection may appear as an assemblage of several species. Some of large number (>400) described species may be recent polyploids. Phylogenetic relationships to other conjugating green algae in Zygnematales (Mesotaeniaceae and Desmidiaceae) uncertain; conflicting phylogenetic hypotheses have postulated relation to other taxa with ribbonlike chloroplasts, either unicells (Spirotaenia) or filaments. Analysis of chloroplast DNA suggests close relationship with Sirogonium. Discovery of primitive phragmoplast, biochemical similarities, and gene-sequence data from ribosomal DNA and chloroplast DNA suggest close relationship with other Charophyceae and lower land plants.

Common names

(as Spirogyra)
English: Water silk, Mermaid's tressses, Blanket weed (Duddington 1966).

Swedish: Spiralbandalger (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Numbers of names and species: There are 612 species names in the database at present, of which 535 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Spirogyra abbreviata Zheng C 
Spirogyra acanthophora (Skuja) Czurda C 
Spirogyra acumbentis Vodenicarov C 
Spirogyra adjerensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra adnata (Vaucher) Kützing C 
Spirogyra adornata Ling C 
Spirogyra aequalis F.L.Harvey C 
Spirogyra aequinoctialis G.S.West C 
Spirogyra affinis (Hassall) Petit C 
Spirogyra africana (F.E.Fritsch) Czurda C 
Spirogyra ahmedabadensis N.D.Kamat C 
Spirogyra alkaliensis Noda U 
Spirogyra alpina Kützing C 
Spirogyra alternata Kützing C 
Spirogyra amphimorpha A.K.M.N.Islam C 
Spirogyra ampilii Ushadevi & Panikkar C 
Spirogyra ampla (C.-C.Jao) H.Krieger S 
Spirogyra amplectens Skuja C 
Spirogyra ampliata L.Liu C 
Spirogyra anadpurensis Ropar U 
Spirogyra anchora Skuja C 
Spirogyra angolensis Welwitsch C 
Spirogyra angulata Nipkow C 
Spirogyra anjanii Ushadevi & Panikkar C 
Spirogyra anomala Bhashyakarla Rao C 
Spirogyra anzygoapora Singh C 
Spirogyra aphanosculpta Skuja C 
Spirogyra aplanospora Randhawa C 
Spirogyra archanii Ushadevi & Panikkar C 
Spirogyra arcta (C.Agardh) Endlichter C 
Spirogyra arcuata Liu C 
Spirogyra areolata Lagerheim C 
Spirogyra arizonensis Rickert & Hoshaw C 
Spirogyra arta C.-C.Jao S 
Spirogyra arthuri Woodhead & Tweed C 
Spirogyra articulata Transeau C 
Spirogyra asiatica Czurda C 
Spirogyra atasiana Czurda C 
Spirogyra atrobrunnea Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra aubvillei Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra australica Czurda C 
Spirogyra australiensis Möbius C 
Spirogyra austriaca Czurda C 
Spirogyra azygospora R.N.Singh C 
Spirogyra baileyi Schmidle C 
Spirogyra baradwjae Ludhiana U 
Spirogyra bardhamanensis Kargupta et al. C 
Spirogyra batekiana Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra bellis (Hassall) P.Crouan & H.Crouan C 
Spirogyra bengalensis Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra bicalyptrata Czurda C 
Spirogyra bichromatophora (Randhawa) Transeau C 
Spirogyra biformis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra biharensis A.M.Verma & B.Kumari C 
Spirogyra bii Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra bireticulata Liu C 
Spirogyra borealis Zheng & Ling C 
Spirogyra borgeana Transeau C 
Spirogyra borgei Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra borkuense Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra borysthenica Kasanowsky & Smirnoff [Smirnov] C 
Spirogyra bourrellyana Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra braziliensis (Nordstedt) Transeau C 
Spirogyra britannica Godward C 
Spirogyra brunnea Czurda C 
Spirogyra buchetii Petit C 
Spirogyra bullata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra calcarea Transeau C 
Spirogyra calchaquiesiae B.Tracanna C 
Spirogyra californica Stancheva, J.D.Hall, McCourt & Sheath C 
Spirogyra calospora Cleve C 
Spirogyra canaliculata Segar C 
Spirogyra cardinia S.H.Lewis C 
Spirogyra caroliniana G.E.Dillard C 
Spirogyra castanacea G.C.Couch C 
Spirogyra cataeniformis (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra cavata Vodenicarov C 
Spirogyra ceylanica (Wittrock) De Toni S 
Spirogyra chaibasaensis A.K.Mahato C 
Spirogyra chakiaensis (Bhashyakarla Rao) Kreiger C 
Spirogyra chandigarhensis Unknown authority U 
Spirogyra chandrae Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra chavarensis Ushadevi & Panikkar C 
Spirogyra chekiangensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra chenii C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra chittagongenensis A.K.M.N.Islam C 
Spirogyra chungkingensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra chuniae C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra circumcissa Czurda S 
Spirogyra circumlineata Transeau C 
Spirogyra circumvarians Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra clavata Segar C 
Spirogyra cleveana Transeau C 
Spirogyra colligata Hodgetts C 
Spirogyra collinsii (I.F.Lewis) Printz S 
Spirogyra columbiana Czurda C 
Spirogyra communis (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra condensata (Vaucher) Dumortier C 
Spirogyra congolensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra conspicua F.Gay C 
Spirogyra convoluta C 
Spirogyra corrugata Woodhead & Tweed C 
Spirogyra corrugata Transeau S 
Spirogyra costata Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra costulata Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra coumbiana Czurda C 
Spirogyra crassa (Kützing) Kützing C 
Spirogyra crassispina C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra crassiuscula (Wittrock & Nordstedt) Transeau C 
Spirogyra crassiuscula L.J.Bi S 
Spirogyra crassivallicularis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra crassoidea (Transeau) Transeau C 
Spirogyra crenulata R.N.Singh C 
Spirogyra croasdaleae Blum C 
Spirogyra cupientis D.G.Vodenicharov & I.K.Kiryakov S 
Spirogyra cyanosporum P 
Spirogyra cylindrica Czurda C 
Spirogyra cylindrosperma (West & G.S.West) H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra cylindrospora West & G.S.West C 
Spirogyra czubinskii Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra czurdae J.N.Misra C 
Spirogyra czurdiana Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra dacimina (O.F.Müller) Kützing P 
Spirogyra dacimina (O.F.Müller) Kützing P 
Spirogyra daedalea Lagerheim C 
Spirogyra daedaleoides Czurda S 
Spirogyra danica Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra darbhangensis Kargupta & al. C 
Spirogyra decimina (O.F.Müller) Dumortier C 
Spirogyra densa Kützing C 
Spirogyra denticulata Transeau C 
Spirogyra dentireticulata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra desikacharyensis R.S.Rattan C 
Spirogyra dialyderma Ling & Zheng C 
Spirogyra dicephala C.-C.Jao & H.Z.Zhu C 
Spirogyra dictyospora C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra dicyozygotica H.R.Chu & W.C.Chu S 
Spirogyra diluta H.C.Wood C 
Spirogyra dimorpha Liu S 
Spirogyra dimorpha Geitler C 
Spirogyra discoidea Transeau C 
Spirogyra discreta Transeau C 
Spirogyra distenta Transeau C 
Spirogyra diversizygotica (V.I.Polyanskij) L.A.Rundina C 
Spirogyra dixitii H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra djalonensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra djiliense Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra dodgeana P 
Spirogyra drilonensis Petkoff C 
Spirogyra dubia Kützing C 
Spirogyra echinata Tiffany C 
Spirogyra echinospora Blum C 
Spirogyra eillipsospora Transeau C 
Spirogyra elegans Wollny C 
Spirogyra elegantissima Y.J.Ling & Y.M.Zheng C 
Spirogyra ellipsospora Transeau C 
Spirogyra elliptica C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra elongata (Vaucher) Kützing S 
Spirogyra elongata (Vaucher) Dumortier C 
Spirogyra elongata (H.C.Wood) H.C.Wood C 
Spirogyra emilianensis Bonhomme C 
Spirogyra endogranulata O.Bock & W.Bock C 
Spirogyra esthonica (Skuja) Czurda S 
Spirogyra exilis West & G.S.West C 
Spirogyra fallax (Hansgirg) Wille C 
Spirogyra farlowii Transeau S 
Spirogyra fassula Zheng C 
Spirogyra favosa Y.-X.Wei & Y.-K.Yung C 
Spirogyra fennica Cedercreutz C 
Spirogyra ferruginea H.W.Liang C 
Spirogyra flavescens (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra flavicans Kützing C 
Spirogyra floridana Transeau S 
Spirogyra fluviatilis Hilse C 
Spirogyra formosa (Transeau) Czurda C 
Spirogyra fossa C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra fossicola C.-C.Jao & Chian S 
Spirogyra fossulata C.-C.Jao & Hu C 
Spirogyra foveolata (Transeau) Czurda C 
Spirogyra fragilis C.-C.Jao S 
Spirogyra franconica O.Bock & W.Bock C 
Spirogyra frankliniana Tiffany C 
Spirogyra frigida F.Gay C 
Spirogyra fritschiana Czurda C 
Spirogyra fuellebornei Schmidle S 
Spirogyra fukienica Wei C 
Spirogyra fuscoatra Rabenhorst C 
Spirogyra fuzhouensis H.-J.Hu C 
Spirogyra gallica Petit C 
Spirogyra gangaensis Lakshminarasimhan C 
Spirogyra garlandica Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra gaterslebensis Reith C 
Spirogyra gauthier-lievrae Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra gauthieri Gayral C 
Spirogyra gharbensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra ghosei R.N.Singh C 
Spirogyra gibberosa C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra glabra Czurda C 
Spirogyra globulispora Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra gobonensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra godwardiae M.Srivastava C 
Spirogyra goetzei Schmidle C 
Spirogyra gracilis Kützing C 
Spirogyra granulata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra gratiana Transeau C 
Spirogyra grevilleana (Hassall) Kützing S 
Spirogyra groenlandica Rosenvinge C 
Spirogyra grossii Schmidle S 
Spirogyra guangchowensis Zhu & Zhong C 
Spirogyra guineense Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra gujaratensis N.D.Kamat C 
Spirogyra gurdaspurensis R.S.Rattan C 
Spirogyra haimenensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra hartigii (Kützing) De Toni C 
Spirogyra hassalii (Jenner) Petit P 
Spirogyra hassallii (Jenner ex Hassall) P.Crouan & H.Crouan C 
Spirogyra hatillensis Transeau C 
Spirogyra heeriana Nägeli ex Kützing C 
Spirogyra henanensis (L.J.Bi) L.J.Bi C 
Spirogyra herbipolensis O.Bock & W.Bock C 
Spirogyra heterospora Liu C 
Spirogyra hoehnei Borge C 
Spirogyra hoggarica (Gauthier-Lièvre) Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra hollandiae Taft C 
Spirogyra hopeiensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra hornschuchii Kersten U 
Spirogyra hui L.C.Li S 
Spirogyra hunanensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra hungarica Langer C 
Spirogyra hyalina Cleve C 
Spirogyra hydrodicta Transeau S 
Spirogyra hymerae Britton & B.H.Smith C 
Spirogyra illinoisensis Transeau S 
Spirogyra inconstans Collins C 
Spirogyra incrassata Czurda C 
Spirogyra indiana Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra indica Krieger C 
Spirogyra inflata (Vaucher) Dumortier C 
Spirogyra insignis (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra insueta Zhu & Zhong C 
Spirogyra intermedia Rabenhorst C 
Spirogyra intorta C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra ionia Wade C 
Spirogyra irregularis Nägeli ex Kützing C 
Spirogyra islamii Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra ivorensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra iyengarii Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra jaoensis Randhawa C 
Spirogyra jaoi S.H.Ley C 
Spirogyra jassiensis (Teodoresco) Czurda C 
Spirogyra jatobae Transeau C 
Spirogyra jogensis M.O.P.Iyengar C 
Spirogyra juergensii Kützing S 
Spirogyra jugalis (Dillwyn) Kützing C 
Spirogyra juliana Stancheva, J.D.Hall, McCourt & Sheath C 
Spirogyra kaffirita Transeau C 
Spirogyra kamatii Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra karnalae Randhawa C 
Spirogyra khuntiensis A.K.Mahato C 
Spirogyra kiratpurensis U 
Spirogyra kolae Hajdu C 
Spirogyra kolhapurensis N.D.Kamat C 
Spirogyra koreana J.-H.Kim, Y.H.Kim, & I.K.Lee C 
Spirogyra krubergii V.J.Poljanski C 
Spirogyra kundaensis R.N.Singh C 
Spirogyra kusheshwarsthanensis Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra kuusamoensis Hirn C 
Spirogyra labbei Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra labyrinthica Transeau C 
Spirogyra lacustris Czurda C 
Spirogyra lagerheimii Wittrock C 
Spirogyra laka Kützing C 
Spirogyra lallandiae Taft C 
Spirogyra lambertiana Transeau C 
Spirogyra lamellata (Bhashyakarla Rao) Krieger C 
Spirogyra lamellosa C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra lapponica Lagerheim C 
Spirogyra latireticulata Zheng & Ling C 
Spirogyra latviensis Czurda C 
Spirogyra laxa Kützing C 
Spirogyra laxistrata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra lenticularis Transeau C 
Spirogyra lentiformis L.J.Bi C 
Spirogyra liana Transeau S 
Spirogyra lians Transeau C 
Spirogyra libyca Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra lineata Suringar C 
Spirogyra lismorensis Playfair C 
Spirogyra lodziensis Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra lohandensis U 
Spirogyra longifissa Wei C 
Spirogyra lubrica Kützing C 
Spirogyra lucknowensis (Prasad & Dutta) Kadlubowska P 
Spirogyra lushanensis L.C.Li C 
Spirogyra luteospora Czurda C 
Spirogyra lutetiana Petit C 
Spirogyra lymerae Britton & Smith C 
Spirogyra machrisiana Prescott U 
Spirogyra macrospora (C.B.Rao) Krieger C 
Spirogyra maghrebiana Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra magna (Dixit) H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra major Kützing C 
Spirogyra majuscula Kützing C 
Spirogyra malmeana Hirn C 
Spirogyra manoramae Randhawa C 
Spirogyra mantonii U 
Spirogyra maravillosa Transeau C 
Spirogyra marchica H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra margalefii Aboal & Llimona C 
Spirogyra margaritata Wollny C 
Spirogyra marocana Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra mattonensis (Misra) H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra maxima (Hassall) Wittrock C 
Spirogyra mayyanadensis Ushadevi & Panikkar C 
Spirogyra megaspora Transeau C 
Spirogyra meinningensis C 
Spirogyra meridionalis W.J.Zhu & Zhong C 
Spirogyra miamiana Taft C 
Spirogyra microdictyon C.-C.Jao & Hu C 
Spirogyra microgranulata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra micropunctata Transeau C 
Spirogyra microspora C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra mienningensis L.-C.Li C 
Spirogyra minor (Schmidle) Transeau C 
Spirogyra minuticrassoidea Yamagishi C 
Spirogyra minutifossa C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra mirabilis (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra miranda Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra mirifica Zheng & Ling C 
Spirogyra mithalaensis A.M.Verma & B.Kumari C 
Spirogyra moebii Transeau C 
Spirogyra moheshwarii U 
Spirogyra monodiana Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra montserrati Margalef C 
Spirogyra moulankariensis Usha & Panikkar C 
Spirogyra multiconjugata N.C.Ferrer & E.J.Cáceres C 
Spirogyra multiformis Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra multistrata Zheng & Ling C 
Spirogyra multitrata Zheng & Ling C 
Spirogyra mutabilis C.-C.Jao & H.J.Hu C 
Spirogyra narcissiana Transeau C 
Spirogyra natchita Transeau C 
Spirogyra nawaschinii Kasanowsky S 
Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra neorhizobrachialis C.-C.Jao & Zheng C 
Spirogyra nitida (O.F.Müller) Leiblein C 
Spirogyra nodifera O.Bock & W.Bock C 
Spirogyra notabilis Taft C 
Spirogyra nova-angliae Transeau C 
Spirogyra novae-angliae Transeau C 
Spirogyra nyctigama Taft C 
Spirogyra oblata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra oblonga Liu C 
Spirogyra obovata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra occidentalis (Transeau) Czurda C 
Spirogyra oligocarpa C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra olivascens Rabenhorst C 
Spirogyra ollicola C.-C.Jao & Zhong C 
Spirogyra oltmannsii Huber-Pestalozzi C 
Spirogyra orientalis West & G.S.West C 
Spirogyra orthospira Nägeli C 
Spirogyra ouarsenica Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra oudhensis Randhawa S 
Spirogyra ovigera Montagne C 
Spirogyra pachyderma Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra palghatensis Erady C 
Spirogyra paludosa Czurda C 
Spirogyra papulata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra paradoxa Bhashyakarla Rao C 
Spirogyra paraguayensis Borge C 
Spirogyra parva (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra parvispora H.C.Wood C 
Spirogyra parvula (Transeau) Czurda C 
Spirogyra pascheriana Czurda C 
Spirogyra patliputri A.M.Verma & B.Kumari C 
Spirogyra peipingensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra pellucida (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra perforans Transeau C 
Spirogyra plena (West & G.S.West) Czurda C 
Spirogyra poljanskii Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra polymorpha Kirchner C 
Spirogyra polytaeniata Strasburger C 
Spirogyra porangabae Transeau C 
Spirogyra porticalis (O.F.Müller) Dumortier C - type
Spirogyra pratensis Transeau C 
Spirogyra prescottii Transeau S 
Spirogyra princeps (Vaucher) Link ex Meyen C 
Spirogyra proavita Langer C 
Spirogyra prolifica N.D.Kamat C 
Spirogyra propria Transeau C 
Spirogyra protecta H.C.Wood C 
Spirogyra pseudoaedaloides Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra pseudobellis W.J.Zhu & Zhong C 
Spirogyra pseudocorrugata Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra pseudocylindrica Prescott C 
Spirogyra pseudofloridana Prescott S 
Spirogyra pseudogauthieri Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra pseudogibberosa Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra pseudogranulata S.-H.Ley C 
Spirogyra pseudojuergensii H.Silva C 
Spirogyra pseudomaiuscula Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra pseudomajuscula Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra pseudomaxima Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra pseudoneglecta Margalef S 
Spirogyra pseudoneglecta Czurda C 
Spirogyra pseudonodifera O.Bock & W.Bock C 
Spirogyra pseudoplena Liu C 
Spirogyra pseudopulchrata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra pseudoreticulata H.Kreiger C 
Spirogyra pseudorhizopus L.J.Bi C 
Spirogyra pseudosahnii Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra pseudospreeiana C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra pseudosubreticulata Rickert & Hoshaw C 
Spirogyra pseudotenuissima O.Bock & W.Bock C 
Spirogyra pseudotetrapla Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra pseudotexensis Bourrelly C 
Spirogyra pseudovarians Czurda C 
Spirogyra pseudovenusta Liu & Wei C 
Spirogyra pseudowoodii V.J.Poljanski C 
Spirogyra pulchella (H.C.Wood) H.C.Wood C 
Spirogyra pulchra Alexenko C 
Spirogyra pulchrifigurata C.-C.Jao S 
Spirogyra punctata Cleve S 
Spirogyra puncticulata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra punctiformis Transeau S 
Spirogyra punctulata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra quadrata (Hassall) P.Petit C 
Spirogyra quadrilaminata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra quezelii Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra quilonensis Kothari C 
Spirogyra quinina (O.F.Müller) Dumortier S 
Spirogyra quinquilaminata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra ramosa Svirenko S 
Spirogyra randhawae Krieger C 
Spirogyra ranipurensis Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra rattanii Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra recostata Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra rectangularis Transeau C 
Spirogyra rectispira Merriman C 
Spirogyra reflexa Transeau S 
Spirogyra regularis (Cedercreutz) H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra reinhardii Khmelevesky [Chmielewski, Khmelevesky] C 
Spirogyra reticulata Nordstedt C 
Spirogyra reticulatum Randhawa C 
Spirogyra reticuliana Randhawa C 
Spirogyra rhizobrachialis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra rhizoides Randhawa C 
Spirogyra rhizopus C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra rhodopea Petkoff C 
Spirogyra rickertii Kadlubowska U 
Spirogyra rivularis (Hassall) Rabenhorst C 
Spirogyra robusta (Nygaard) Czurda C 
Spirogyra rugosa (Transeau) Czurda C 
Spirogyra rugulosa Iwanoff C 
Spirogyra rupestris Schmidle S 
Spirogyra sahnii Randhawa C 
Spirogyra salina Aleem C 
Spirogyra salmonispora N.C.Ferrer & E.J.Cáceres U 
Spirogyra sanjingensis Y.Wang & Z.Wang C 
Spirogyra sarmae M.Singh & M.Srivastava C 
Spirogyra schimidtii West & G.S.West C 
Spirogyra schmidtii West & G.S.West C 
Spirogyra schweickerdtii Cholonky C 
Spirogyra scripta Nygaard C 
Spirogyra scrobiculata (Stockmayer) Czurda C 
Spirogyra sculpta Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra semiornata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra senegalensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra setiformis (Roth) Martens ex Meneghini C 
Spirogyra setiformis Kützing U 
Spirogyra shantungensis L.-C.Li C 
Spirogyra shanxiensis Zheng & Ling C 
Spirogyra shenzaensis Zheng C 
Spirogyra siamensis Transeau C 
Spirogyra siberica Skvortzov C 
Spirogyra silesiaca Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra silvicola M.E.Britton S 
Spirogyra sinensis L.-C.Li C 
Spirogyra singhii H.Kreiger S 
Spirogyra singularis Nordstedt C 
Spirogyra sinhaensis M.Srivastava C 
Spirogyra sirogonioides E.O.Hughes S 
Spirogyra skujae Randhawa C 
Spirogyra skvortzowii Willi Kreiger C 
Spirogyra smithii Transeau C 
Spirogyra speciosa Liu C 
Spirogyra sphaerica (Misra) H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra sphaerocarpa C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra sphaerospora Hirn C 
Spirogyra spinescens Kirjakov C 
Spirogyra splendida G.S West C 
Spirogyra spreeiana Rabenhorst C 
Spirogyra stictica (Smith) Wille S 
Spirogyra striata Klein U 
Spirogyra subaffinis F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich C 
Spirogyra subarta C.-C.Jao S 
Spirogyra subbullata Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra subcolligata L.J.Bi C 
Spirogyra subcrassa Woronchin C 
Spirogyra subcrassiuscula L.J.Bi C 
Spirogyra subcylindrospora C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra subechinata Godward C 
Spirogyra subformosa Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra subfossulata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra subfragilis A.K.M.N.Islam C 
Spirogyra subglabra Zheng & Ling C 
Spirogyra sublambertiana Zhao C 
Spirogyra sublamellata A.K.M.N.Islam C 
Spirogyra subluteospora C.-C.Jao & Hu C 
Spirogyra submajuscula Ling & Zheng C 
Spirogyra submargaritata Godward C 
Spirogyra submarina (Collins) Transeau C 
Spirogyra submaxima Transeau C 
Spirogyra subobovata Chian C 
Spirogyra subpapulatata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra subpellucida C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra subpolytaeniata C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra subpratensis Woronichin C 
Spirogyra subreflexa Liang & Wang C 
Spirogyra subreticulata F.E.Fritsch C 
Spirogyra subsalina Cedercreutz C 
Spirogyra subsalsa Kützing C 
Spirogyra subsalso-punctatulata Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra subtropica Chian C 
Spirogyra suburbana C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra subvariformis L.-J.Bi S 
Spirogyra subvelata Kreiger C 
Spirogyra subvermiculata A.K.M.N.Islam C 
Spirogyra subverrucosa Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra subverruculosa Liu S 
Spirogyra subweberi Wang S 
Spirogyra suecica Transeau S 
Spirogyra sulcata Blum C 
Spirogyra sundanensis Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra suomaniana Transeau S 
Spirogyra superba L.Liu C 
Spirogyra supervarians Transeau C 
Spirogyra szechwanensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra taftiana Transeau C 
Spirogyra taiyuanensis Ling C 
Spirogyra tandae Randhawa C 
Spirogyra taylorii C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra tenuior (Transeau) Krieger S 
Spirogyra tenuispina Rundina C 
Spirogyra tenuissima (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra teodorescui Transeau C 
Spirogyra ternata Ripart C 
Spirogyra tetrapla Transeau C 
Spirogyra texensis Taft S 
Spirogyra tibetensis C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra tjibodensis Faber C 
Spirogyra tolosana Comère C 
Spirogyra torta Blum C 
Spirogyra trachycarpa Skuja C 
Spirogyra transeauiana C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra triplicata (Collins) Transeau C 
Spirogyra trochainii Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra tropica Kützing C 
Spirogyra tropica (G.S.West) Transeau S 
Spirogyra tsingtaoensis L.-C.Li C 
Spirogyra tuberculata Lagerheim C 
Spirogyra tuberculosa Liang & Wang C 
Spirogyra tubifera Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra tucumaniae B.Tracanna C 
Spirogyra tumida C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra turfosa F.Gay C 
Spirogyra tuwensis R.J.Patel & C.K.Ashok Kumar C 
Spirogyra ucrainica Smirnoff S 
Spirogyra ugandense Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra unduliseptum Randhawa C 
Spirogyra urbana C.-C.Jao & Zhong C 
Spirogyra van-zantenii Cholonky C 
Spirogyra variabilis C.-C.Jao & Hu C 
Spirogyra varians (Hassall) Kützing C 
Spirogyra variaspora Rickert & Hoshaw C 
Spirogyra varifaveolata B.N.Prasad & S.Dutta C 
Spirogyra variformis Transeau C 
Spirogyra varireticulata Kargupta & R.N.Jha C 
Spirogyra varshaii Prasad & Dutta C 
Spirogyra vasishtii R.S.Rattan C 
Spirogyra velata Nordstedt C 
Spirogyra venkataramanii R.S.Rattan C 
Spirogyra venosa Kadlubowska C 
Spirogyra ventersica (Transeau) H.Krieger S 
Spirogyra venusta C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra vermiculata C.-C.Jao & H.J.Hu C 
Spirogyra verrucogranulata I.C A.Dias & C.E.de M.Bicudo C 
Spirogyra verrucosa (C.B.Rao) H.Krieger C 
Spirogyra verruculosa C.-C.Jao C 
Spirogyra visenda Transeau S 
Spirogyra voltaica Gauthier-Lièvre C 
Spirogyra wabashensis Tiffany S 
Spirogyra wangii L.C.Li C 
Spirogyra weberi Kützing C 
Spirogyra weishuiensis Ling & Zheng C 
Spirogyra weletischii West & G.S.West C 
Spirogyra welwitschii West & G.S.West C 
Spirogyra westii Transeau S 
Spirogyra willei Skuja C 
Spirogyra wittrockii Alexenko C 
Spirogyra wollnyi De Toni C 
Spirogyra woodsii (Hassal) Czurda S 
Spirogyra wrightiana Transeau C 
Spirogyra wuchanensis C.-C.Jao & H.-J.Hu C 
Spirogyra wuhanensis C.-C.Jao & H.-J.Hu C 
Spirogyra xiangshanensis Liang & Wang S 
Spirogyra xiaoganensis Liu C 
Spirogyra xinxiangensis L.J.Bi C 
Spirogyra yamagishii Kargupta & P.Sarma C 
Spirogyra yexianensis L.J.Bi C 
Spirogyra yuin S.Skinner & Entwisle C 
Spirogyra yunnanensis L.-C.Li C 

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Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 October 2015 by M.D. Guiry

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 November 2017.

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