150,112 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,397 images, 57,748 bibliographic items, 380,808 distributional records.

Chaetoceros Ehrenberg, 1844

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Bacillariophyta
Subphylum Bacillariophytina
Class Mediophyceae
Subclass Chaetocerotophycidae
Order Chaetocerotales
Family Chaetocerotaceae

Lectotype species: Chaetoceros tetrachaeta Ehrenberg

Original publication:Ehrenberg, C.G. (1844). Einige vorläufige Resultate seiner Untersuchungen der ihm von der Südpolreise des Captain Ross, so wie von den Herren Schayer und Darwin zugekommenen Materialien über das Verhalten des kleinsten Lebens in den Oceanen und den grössten bisher zugänglichen Tiefen des Weltmeeres. Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung Geeigneten Verhandlungen Der Königl. Preuss. Akademie Der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1844: 182-207.
 Download PDF

Type designated in Boyer, C.S. (1927). Synopsis of North American Diatomaceae. Part I - Coscinodiscatae, Rhizosolenatae, Biddulphiatae, Fragilariatae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 78(Suppl.): 1-228.
 Download PDF

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as masculine.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Hasle, G.R. & Syvertsen, E.E. (1996). Marine diatoms. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 5-385. San Diego: Academic Press.

Nomenclatural notes
Two species were included in the original publication (p. 200): C. dichaeta and C. tetrachaeta, no type was designated. - (13 Jan 2007) - Wendy Guiry

Initially considered feminine (Ehrenberg 1844), then neuter and then masculine (Van Landingham 1968). The genus is treated as masculine here, as are all genera with the suffix "-ceros". In accordance with the Code, genera with the suffix "-ceras" are, however, treated as neuter. - (9 Sep 2012) - M.D. Guiry

Description: Generally colonial bipolar centric diatoms. Forms cylindrical cells with an oval or circular base that contain 1, 2 or more chloroplasts. The chloroplasts appear to be quadrangular in cingular view and elliptic or circular in valve view. The mantle is vertical and the cingulum is more or less developed. Processes, called setae, that are of varying thickness emerge from each apex. In the colonial species the terminal setae, those emerging from the last valve in the colony, are distinguished from intercalary setae, those of the internal valves that cross each other and/or fuse at some point, allowing the formation colonies of differing lengths. Specialised intercalary setae are found in some species (C. compressus , C. diversus , C. messanensis), which are different in size and shape from the other setae in the colony. An aperture that varies in size and shape and is delimited by the valve faces and the proximal part of the setae separates the cells of a colony. The valve surface generally has radial costae originating from a central hyaline\transparent annulus. The rimoportula, when present, is located centrally or subcentrally, usually with a short external tube. In the cingulum, the intercalary bands and the pleurae are of the open or segmented type. The setae have a variable ornamentation, often consisting of rows of spines or pores of different sizes.

Information contributed by: Modified from http://www.szn.it/botanica/database/chaetoceros_en.htm. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 6 Aug 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 363 species names in the database at present, of which 210 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Chaetoceros abnormis A.I.Proshkina-Lavrenko C 
Chaetoceros aculeatus I.V.Makarova C 
Chaetoceros adelianus Manguin C 
Chaetoceros adelianus Manguin C 
Chaetoceros adhaerens Mangin S 
Chaetoceros adriaticus B.Schussnig U 
Chaetoceros aduncus I.N.Sukhanova C 
Chaetoceros aequatorialis Cleve C 
Chaetoceros affinis Lauder C 
Chaetoceros amanita Cleve-Euler S 
Chaetoceros anastomosans Grunow C 
Chaetoceros anglicus Grunow U 
Chaetoceros angularis Schütt C 
Chaetoceros angulatus F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros apendiculatus F.C.Müller Melchers C 
Chaetoceros approximatus H.H.Gran & E.C.Angst P 
Chaetoceros armatus T.West S 
Chaetoceros astrabadicus A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros asymmetricus J. Fenner in Fenner & Mikkelsen P 
Chaetoceros atlanticus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros atlantidae F.C.Müller Melchers P 
Chaetoceros audax F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros audax F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros aurivillii Cleve C 
Chaetoceros bacillaria Ehrenberg P 
Chaetoceros bacteriastrius G.C.Wallich C 
Chaetoceros bacteriastroides Karsten C 
Chaetoceros baculites A.F.Meunier P 
Chaetoceros balticus Cleve S 
Chaetoceros barbatus (Ehrenberg) T.Brightwell P 
Chaetoceros bermejensis Hernández-Becerril C 
Chaetoceros bermejensis D.U.Hernández-Becerril P 
Chaetoceros biconcavus Gran S 
Chaetoceros bicoronatus K.S.Mereschkowsky P 
Chaetoceros biharensis Pantocsek P 
Chaetoceros bisetaceus J.Schumann C 
Chaetoceros borealis Bailey C 
Chaetoceros borealis H.S.Lauder U 
Chaetoceros borealoides Honigmann C 
Chaetoceros borgei Lemmermann C 
Chaetoceros bottnicus Cleve S 
Chaetoceros brevis F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros brevisetus Aksentjev C 
Chaetoceros brightwellii (Cleve) Cleve P 
Chaetoceros brussilowi A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros buceros Karsten C 
Chaetoceros bulbosus (Ehrenberg) Heiden C 
Chaetoceros bungei Honigmann C 
Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) H.Takano C 
Chaetoceros californicus Grunow C 
Chaetoceros calvus Cleve P 
Chaetoceros capensis Karsten C 
Chaetoceros capreolus (Ehrenberg) L.W.Bailey P 
Chaetoceros capricornianus F.J.R.Taylor C 
Chaetoceros caspicus Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros castracanei Karsten C 
Chaetoceros cellulosus H.S.Lauder S 
Chaetoceros ceratosporus Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros chilensis Krasske S 
Chaetoceros chinchae K.S.Mereschkowsky S 
Chaetoceros chunii G.H.H.Karsten C 
Chaetoceros ciliatus H.S.Lauder P 
Chaetoceros cinctus Gran C 
Chaetoceros circinalis (Meunier) K.G. Jensen & Moestrup P 
Chaetoceros clavigerus Ostenfeld S 
Chaetoceros clavigerus Grunow P 
Chaetoceros clevei F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros coarctatus Lauder C 
Chaetoceros cochleus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros coloradensis J.Li, Kociolek & Y.H.Gao C 
Chaetoceros commutatus Cleve P 
Chaetoceros compactus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros compactus J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros compressus Lauder C 
Chaetoceros concavicornis L.A.Mangin C 
Chaetoceros confertum F.C.Müller Melchers C 
Chaetoceros confervoides Ralfs C 
Chaetoceros confusus S.L.VanLandingham C 
Chaetoceros constrictus Gran C 
Chaetoceros contortus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros convexicornis Mangin S 
Chaetoceros convolutus Castracane C 
Chaetoceros cornutus G.Leuduger-Fortmorel C 
Chaetoceros coronatus Gran C 
Chaetoceros costatus Pavillard C 
Chaetoceros crenatus (Ehrenberg) T.Brightwell P 
Chaetoceros crinitus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros criophilus Castracane C 
Chaetoceros cruciatus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros crucifer H.H.Gran P 
Chaetoceros curiosus I.V.Makarova P 
Chaetoceros currens Cleve P 
Chaetoceros curvatus Castracane C 
Chaetoceros curvisetus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros cylindrosporus I.V.Makarova P 
Chaetoceros dadayi Pavillard C 
Chaetoceros danicus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros dayaensis Y.Li & S.Zhu C 
Chaetoceros debilis Cleve C 
Chaetoceros decipiens Cleve C 
Chaetoceros deflandrei Manguin P 
Chaetoceros delicatulus Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros densus (Cleve) Cleve C 
Chaetoceros dentatus O.S.Korotkevich P 
Chaetoceros denticulatus H.S.Lauder C 
Chaetoceros diadema (Ehrenberg) Gran C 
Chaetoceros dichaeta Ehrenberg C 
Chaetoceros dichatoensis Gaonkar, Montresor & Sarno C 
Chaetoceros dicladia F.S.Castracane degli Angelminelli P 
Chaetoceros didymus Ehrenberg C 
Chaetoceros difficilis Cleve C 
Chaetoceros diploneis Ehrenberg P 
Chaetoceros dipyrenops Meunier C 
Chaetoceros dispar Castracane S 
Chaetoceros distans Cleve S 
Chaetoceros distichum Schütt C 
Chaetoceros distichus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros distinguendus Lemmermann C 
Chaetoceros diversicurvatus Goor C 
Chaetoceros diversus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros dubius Pr.-Lavrenko P 
Chaetoceros eibenii Grunow C 
Chaetoceros elmorei Boyer C 
Chaetoceros elongatus Honigmann C 
Chaetoceros equatorialis Cleve P 
Chaetoceros exospermus Meunier C 
Chaetoceros externus Gran C 
Chaetoceros fallax Prosckina-Lavrenko C 
Chaetoceros femur F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros filiferus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros filiformis Meunier C 
Chaetoceros flexuosus Mangin C 
Chaetoceros forcipatus L.A.Mangin P 
Chaetoceros fragilis Meunier C 
Chaetoceros frickei Hustedt P 
Chaetoceros furca Cleve S 
Chaetoceros furcatus (G.Shadbolt) A.Mann P 
Chaetoceros furcatus Ehrenberg P 
Chaetoceros furcellatus Yendo C 
Chaetoceros furcillatus Bailey C 
Chaetoceros fusus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros galvestonensis A.Collier & A.Murphy C 
Chaetoceros gastridius (Ehrenberg) T.Brightwell P 
Chaetoceros gaussii Heiden S 
Chaetoceros gelidus Chamnansinp, Li, Lundholm & Moestrup C 
Chaetoceros glacialis A.F.Meunier P 
Chaetoceros glacialis A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros glandazii Mangin S 
Chaetoceros gobii A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros gracilis F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros gracilis Apstein S 
Chaetoceros gracilis Pantocsek C 
Chaetoceros granii Cleve P 
Chaetoceros groenlandicus Cleve S 
Chaetoceros grunowii F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros hamatus Hustedt P 
Chaetoceros hebes A.Mann P 
Chaetoceros hendeyi Manguin C 
Chaetoceros heterovalvatus Prosckina-Lavrenko P 
Chaetoceros hiemalis Cleve S 
Chaetoceros hiemalis (Cleve) Cleve P 
Chaetoceros hirundinellus S.Qian C 
Chaetoceros hispidus (Ehrenberg) T.Brightwell P 
Chaetoceros hohnii Graebn.& Wujek C 
Chaetoceros holsaticus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros horridus Krasske P 
Chaetoceros hungaricus Pantocsek P 
Chaetoceros ikari Skvortzov C 
Chaetoceros imbricatus Mangin C 
Chaetoceros implicans Ehrenberg P 
Chaetoceros impressus K.G.Jensen & Moestrup S 
Chaetoceros incertus I.V.Makarova P 
Chaetoceros incisor Ralfs P 
Chaetoceros incurvus Bailey P 
Chaetoceros indicus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros indicus R.Subrahmanyan C 
Chaetoceros ingolfianus Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros insignis Proschkina-Lavrenko U 
Chaetoceros insignis F.C.Müller Melchers P 
Chaetoceros intermedius A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros invisibilis R.M. Gogorev & I.V.Makarova in Gogorev & al. P 
Chaetoceros janischianus Castracane S 
Chaetoceros japonicus Ehrenberg P 
Chaetoceros javanicus Cleve S 
Chaetoceros jouseanus R. M. Gogorev C 
Chaetoceros juetlandicus J.Fenner C 
Chaetoceros karianus Grunow C 
Chaetoceros karyanus A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros kelleri J.-J.Brun P 
Chaetoceros knipowitschii Henckel C 
Chaetoceros komarovii Woronichin C 
Chaetoceros laciniosus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros laevis Leuduger-Fortmorel C 
Chaetoceros lauderi Ralfs ex Lauder C 
Chaetoceros lawii Manguin P 
Chaetoceros leudugeri J.-J.Brun P 
Chaetoceros leve F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros limaniensis A.Ehrlich P 
Chaetoceros litoralis Lemmermann C 
Chaetoceros longicornis I.V.Makarova P 
Chaetoceros longisetus Cleve P 
Chaetoceros lorenzianus Grunow C 
Chaetoceros lorenzii Grunow U 
Chaetoceros lyra K.S.Mereschkowsky P 
Chaetoceros makarovae R. M. Gogorev P 
Chaetoceros malayensis E.Steemann Nielsen P 
Chaetoceros malygini A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros manguinii J.Reyssac P 
Chaetoceros manguinii P.Gayral P 
Chaetoceros medius F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros medusa A.Mann P 
Chaetoceros melchersianus R.Margalef P 
Chaetoceros meridiana (F.Schütt) G.Karsten P 
Chaetoceros mertensii Honigmann C 
Chaetoceros messanensis Castracane C 
Chaetoceros minimus (Levander) D.Marino, G.Giuffre, M.Montresor & A.Zingone C 
Chaetoceros minutissimus Makarova & Proshkina-Lavrenko C 
Chaetoceros mirabilis I.V.Makarova P 
Chaetoceros misumensis H.H.Gran & K.Yendo C 
Chaetoceros mitra (Bailey) Cleve C 
Chaetoceros monicae A.Grunow S 
Chaetoceros muelleri Lemmermann C 
Chaetoceros najadianus B.Schussnig U 
Chaetoceros nansenii A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros natatus Manguin P 
Chaetoceros navicula (Ehrenberg) T.Brightwell P 
Chaetoceros neapolitanus Schroeder S 
Chaetoceros neglectus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros neobulbosus T.V.Desikachary, S.Gowthaman & Y.Latha P 
Chaetoceros neocompactus VanLandingham C 
Chaetoceros neogracilis S.L.VanLandingham C 
Chaetoceros neupokojewii A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros nipponicus J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros notabilis H.Lohmann P 
Chaetoceros odessanus Aksentjev C 
Chaetoceros odontella (Ehrenberg) G.Rabenhorst P 
Chaetoceros okamurae J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros oppositisetaceus A.I.Proshkina-Lavrenko P 
Chaetoceros orientale Schiller C 
Chaetoceros ostenfeldii Cleve P 
Chaetoceros pachtussowii A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros pachyceros R.Margalef P 
Chaetoceros pacificus J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros pacificus G.I.Sëmina P 
Chaetoceros paradoxus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros paradoxus Peragallo S 
Chaetoceros parallelis B.P.Boden P 
Chaetoceros parvus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros paulsenii Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros pavillardii J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros pelagicus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros pendulus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros perpusillus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros peruvianus Brightwell C 
Chaetoceros peruvioatlanticus Karsten S 
Chaetoceros pethoei Pantocsek P 
Chaetoceros phuketensis J.E.B.Rines, P.Boonruang & E.C.Theriot C 
Chaetoceros pinguichaetus A.Henckel & P.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros pinguis A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros plicatorugosus J.-J.Brun P 
Chaetoceros pliocenus J.-J.Brun C 
Chaetoceros polygonus F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros ponticus K.S.Mereschkowsky P 
Chaetoceros princeps (F.S.Castracane degli Antelminelli) A.Mann P 
Chaetoceros procerus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros processus I.V.Makarova P 
Chaetoceros proschkinae Gogorev C 
Chaetoceros protuberans Lauder C 
Chaetoceros pseudoaurivillii J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros pseudobrevis Pavillard C 
Chaetoceros pseudocrinitus Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus Mangin C 
Chaetoceros pseudodichaetus J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros pseudosimilis A.Cleve C 
Chaetoceros pseudosymmetricus E.Steemann Nielsen S 
Chaetoceros pundulus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros quillensis L.W.Bailey U 
Chaetoceros radians F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros radicans F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros radiculus Castracane S 
Chaetoceros ralfsii Cleve S 
Chaetoceros ralfsii Schütt S 
Chaetoceros ramosus O.S.Korotkevich P 
Chaetoceros recurvatus Henckel C 
Chaetoceros reicheltii Hustedt P 
Chaetoceros remotus Cleve & Grunow S 
Chaetoceros rigidus Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros robustus (Cleve) Ostenfeld P 
Chaetoceros robustus I.V.Makarova P 
Chaetoceros rogersii (Ehrenberg) G.Rabenhorst P 
Chaetoceros rostratus Ralfs C 
Chaetoceros rotosporus Li, Lundholm & Moestrup C 
Chaetoceros rude Leuduger-Fortmorel U 
Chaetoceros rudis Cleve S 
Chaetoceros rudis (Cleve) Cleve P 
Chaetoceros russanowii A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros salsugineus Takano C 
Chaetoceros saltans Cleve C 
Chaetoceros scabrosus Prosckina-Lavrenko P 
Chaetoceros sceleton V.Hensen P 
Chaetoceros schimperianus G.Karsten S 
Chaetoceros schmidtii C.E.H.Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros schuettii Cleve C 
Chaetoceros schuttii Cleve S 
Chaetoceros scolopendra Cleve S 
Chaetoceros scriptus Frenguelli P 
Chaetoceros secundus Cleve C 
Chaetoceros seiracanthus Gran C 
Chaetoceros septentrionalis Østrup S 
Chaetoceros sessile Grøntved C 
Chaetoceros setoensis J.Ikari C 
Chaetoceros seychellarum Karsten C 
Chaetoceros siamensis Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros sigmo-calamus J.A.Tempère & J.-J.Brun U 
Chaetoceros similis Cleve C 
Chaetoceros similoides Hustedt P 
Chaetoceros simplex Ostenfeld C 
Chaetoceros skeleton F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros socialis H.S.Lauder C 
Chaetoceros solitarius (Cleve) Cleve S 
Chaetoceros spinosus G.Leuduger-Fortmorel P 
Chaetoceros spirillum (Castracane) De Toni S 
Chaetoceros sporotruncatus Gaonkar, Kooistra & Lange C 
Chaetoceros ssedowii A.Henckel C 
Chaetoceros strictus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros subcompressus J.L.B.Schröder C 
Chaetoceros subcoronatus Krasske P 
Chaetoceros subsalsus Lemmermann S 
Chaetoceros subsecundus (Grunow ex Van Heurck) Hustedt C 
Chaetoceros subtilis Cleve C 
Chaetoceros subtortilis Proshkina-Lavrenko C 
Chaetoceros sumatranus Karsten C 
Chaetoceros surirella Frenguelli P 
Chaetoceros tenellus Ehrenberg P 
Chaetoceros tenuissimus Meunier C 
Chaetoceros teres Cleve C 
Chaetoceros tetrachaeta Ehrenberg C - type
Chaetoceros tetracheta Ehrenberg P 
Chaetoceros tetras G.H.H.Karsten C 
Chaetoceros tetrastichon Cleve C 
Chaetoceros thienemannii Hustedt C 
Chaetoceros throndsenii (Marino, Montresor, & Zingone) Marino, Montresor & Zingone C 
Chaetoceros tiltilensis Frenguelli P 
Chaetoceros titicacaensis Frenguelli P 
Chaetoceros tortilisetus L.A.Mangin P 
Chaetoceros tortissimus Gran C 
Chaetoceros transisetus J.R.Johansen & J.S.Boyer, Jr. C 
Chaetoceros turbineus Makarova & A.I.Proshkina-Lavrenko P 
Chaetoceros uruguayensis F.C.Müller Melchers P 
Chaetoceros vanheurckii Gran C 
Chaetoceros vermiculatus F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros vermiculus F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros villosus Kützing C 
Chaetoceros vistulae Apstein C 
Chaetoceros vixvisibilis Schiller C 
Chaetoceros volans F.Schütt C 
Chaetoceros weissflogii F.Schütt S 
Chaetoceros wighamii Brightwell C 
Chaetoceros wighamoides B.J.Cholnoky P 
Chaetoceros willei Gran C 
Chaetoceros xishaensis Y.C.Kuo, J.Ye & H.Zhou C 
Chaetoceros zachariasii Honigmann C 
Chaetoceros ziwolkii A.Henckel C 

Hustedt, F. (1930). Bacillariophyta (Diatomeae) Zweite Auflage. In: Die Süsswasser-Flora Mitteleuropas. Heft 10. (Pascher, A. Eds), pp. [i]-vii, [1]-466. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Scott, F.J. & Thomas, D.P. (2005). Diatoms. In: Antarctic marine protists. (Scott, F.J. & Marchant, H.J. Eds), pp. 13-201. Canberra & Hobart: Australian Biological Resources Study; Australian Antarctic Division.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 06 August 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=q64bfbdaede3e4d2e

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 December 2017.

SITE © 1996 - 2017 M.D. Guiry. All rights reserved.

Website Design : 249 Design Studio