149,478 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,332 images, 57,479 bibliographic items, 379,359 distributional records.

Hypnea J.V.Lamouroux, 1813

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Cystocloniaceae

Lectotype species: Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux

Original publication:Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1813). Essai sur les genres de la famille des thalassiophytes non articulées. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 20: 21-47, 115-139, 267-293, pls 7-13.
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Type designated in Kylin, H. (1932). Die Florideenordung Gigartinales. Acta Universitatis Lundensis 28(8): 1-88, 22 figs, 28 plates.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.

The Hypneaceae, questionably distinct from the Cystocloniaceae on anatomical grounds, were recently subsumed into the latter family by Saunders et al. (2004) based on small-subunit rDNA sequence studies. - (25 Jul 2006) -

Description: Plants are generally terete, erect or in entangled clumps, or minute parasites. Apices are uniaxial, and cross sections are pseudoparenchymatous throughout, the medulla surrounding the usually distinct central axial filament and in many species containing greater or lesser numbers of cells with lenticular secondary wall thickenings. Inner cells are multinucleate and linked by secondary pit connections. Female gametophytes are procarpic, the 3-celled carpogonial branches borne singly and laterally on inner cortical cells and directed thallus outwardly. Auxiliary cells are intercalary, borne directly distal to the supporting cell in the same cortical filament, and are diploidized by a short process or direct fusion with the fertilized carpogonium. The single gonimoblast initial is directed thallus inwardly. Cystocarps are protuberant, ostiolate or non-ostiolate, encased in a thick pericarp, and consist of a central sterile tissue of large isodiametric cells surrounded by radiating gonimoblasts ending in single, terminal carposporangia. A basal nutritive tissue generally subtends the gonimoblast. Spermatangia occur in clusters. Tetrasporophytes are isomorphic with gametophytes and produce zonate tetrasporangia in nemathecia or sori.

Information contributed by: G.T. Kraft. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 7 Oct 2010 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: The Hypneaceae is a family of 1 free-living and 1 parasitic genus (Hypenocolax). As pointed out by Min-Thein and Womersley (1976), the Hypneaceae is virtually indistinguishable on present criteria from the family Cystocloniaceae, especially the genus Calliblepharis. The two families differ in the consistently single, rather than paired or chained, carposporangia of the Hypneaceae, and the tendency of most Hypnea species to be terete, rather than compressed or flattened. The species of Hypnea that have been tested produce kappa or kappa and iota carrageenans. This, plus the widespread tropical distribution and abundance of the species has led to great interest in their cultivation and harvesting in the northern and western Indian Oceans (Mshigeni 1978; Parekh et al. 1988; Dawes 1987). The Hypneaceae, questionably distinct from the Cystocloniaceae on anatomical grounds, were recently subsumed into the latter family by Saunders et al. (2004) based on small-subunit rDNA sequence studies.

NCBI Nucleotide Sequences

Numbers of names and species: There are 121 species (and infraspecific) names in the database at present, of which 60 have been flagged as currently accepted taxonomically.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is currently accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Hypnea adunca J.Agardh S 
Hypnea alopecuroides Kützing C 
Hypnea anastomosans Papenfuss, Lipkin & P.C.Silva C 
Hypnea arborescens P.Crouan & H.Crouan S 
Hypnea arbuscula P.J.L.Dangeard C 
Hypnea arenaria Kylin C 
Hypnea armata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh S 
Hypnea asiatica P.J.L.Geraldino, E.C.Yang & S.M.Boo C 
Hypnea aspera Kützing S 
Hypnea boergesenii T.Tanaka S 
Hypnea brasiliensis P.B.Jesus, Nauer & J.M.C.Nunes C 
Hypnea bryoides Børgesen C 
Hypnea caespitosa P.J.L.Geraldino & S.M.Boo C 
Hypnea californica Kylin S 
Hypnea cenomyce J.Agardh C 
Hypnea cenomyce var. tenuis Weber-van Bosse C 
Hypnea ceramioides Kützing C 
Hypnea ceramioides var. uncinata Kützing S 
Hypnea cervicornis J.Agardh C 
Hypnea charoides J.V.Lamouroux C 
Hypnea charoides var. delicatula Sonder C 
Hypnea charoides var. indica Weber-Van Bosse C 
Hypnea chordacea Kützing C 
Hypnea chordacea f. simpliciuscula (Okamura) Tanaka S 
Hypnea coccinea (Clemente) Cremades C 
Hypnea compressa Papenfuss C 
Hypnea conferta (Schousboe ex Montagne) Kützing S 
Hypnea confervoides (C.Agardh) J.Agardh S 
Hypnea congesta Papenfuss C 
Hypnea cornuta (Kützing) J.Agardh C 
Hypnea cornuta var. stellulifera J.Agardh S 
Hypnea coulteri Harvey S 
Hypnea cystoclonioides Sonder S 
Hypnea divaricata (C.Agardh) Greville C 
Hypnea divaricata var. ramulosa (Harvey) J.Agardh S 
Hypnea divergens (C.Agardh) J.Agardh S 
Hypnea ecklonii Suhr C 
Hypnea edeniana F.Nauer, V.Cassano & M.C.Oliveira C 
Hypnea episcopalis J.D.Hooker & Harvey S 
Hypnea esperi Bory C 
Hypnea evermannii Setchell & N.L.Gardner C 
Hypnea fastigiata Harvey S 
Hypnea filiformis (Harvey) Womersley C 
Hypnea flagelliformis Greville ex J.Agardh C 
Hypnea flava Nauer, Cassano & M.C.Oliveira C 
Hypnea flexicaulis Y.Yamagishi & M.Masuda S 
Hypnea flexuosa A.C.Brown & N.Jarman C 
Hypnea fruticulosa Kützing C 
Hypnea furcellata J.D.Hooker & Harvey S 
Hypnea furnariana Cormaci, Alongi and Dinaro C 
Hypnea hamulosa (Esper) J.V.Lamouroux C 
Hypnea harveyi Kützing S 
Hypnea hippuroides Kützing S 
Hypnea horrida (C.Agardh) J.Agardh S 
Hypnea intricata Kylin C 
Hypnea japonica Tanaka C 
Hypnea johnstonii Setchell & N.L.Gardner C 
Hypnea krugiana Hauck C 
Hypnea marchantae Setchell & N.L.Gardner C 
Hypnea multicornis (Montagne) Montagne C 
Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux C - type
Hypnea musciformis f. horrida Hauck C 
Hypnea musciformis f. pygmaea Unknown authorities U 
Hypnea musciformis var. cervicornis J.Agardh C 
Hypnea musciformis var. fasciculata Harvey C 
Hypnea musciformis var. foliosissima Sonder C 
Hypnea musciformis var. intricata Harvey C 
Hypnea musciformis var. nuda Harvey C 
Hypnea musciformis var. spinulosa Montagne & Millardet C 
Hypnea musciformis var. pumila Harvey S 
Hypnea musciformis var. divaricata (C.Agardh) Harvey S 
Hypnea musciformis var. cornuta Harvey S 
Hypnea musciformis var. esperi J.Agardh C 
Hypnea musciformis var. flexuosa Harvey S 
Hypnea musciformis var. muscoides Harvey S 
Hypnea musciformis var. nigra Harvey S 
Hypnea musciformis var. ramulosa Harvey S 
Hypnea musciformis var. hippurioides (Kützing) Weber-van Bosse C 
Hypnea musciformis var. valentiae (Turner) Harvey S 
Hypnea nidifica J.Agardh C 
Hypnea nidulans Setchell C 
Hypnea nigrescens Greville ex J.Agardh C 
Hypnea nigrescens f. tenuior J.Agardh C 
Hypnea pannosa J.Agardh C 
Hypnea pectinella Børgesen C 
Hypnea planicaulis Harvey S 
Hypnea platyclada Barreto de Jesus & Castro Nunes C 
Hypnea pseudomusciformis Nauer, Cassano & M.C.Oliveira C 
Hypnea purpurascens (Hudson) Harvey S 
Hypnea ramentacea (C.Agardh) J.Agardh C 
Hypnea rangiferina (R.Brown ex Turner) Greville S 
Hypnea reptans Papenfuss C 
Hypnea rigens Sonder S 
Hypnea rissoana J.Agardh S 
Hypnea rosea Papenfuss C 
Hypnea rugulosa Montagne C 
Hypnea saidana Holmes S 
Hypnea secundiramea Montagne S 
Hypnea seticulosa J.Agardh S 
Hypnea simpliciuscula Okamura S 
Hypnea simpliuscula Okamura S 
Hypnea spicifera (Suhr) Harvey C 
Hypnea spicigera Harvey S 
Hypnea spinella (C.Agardh) Kützing C 
Hypnea spongiiformis Zanardini U 
Hypnea stellulifera (J.Agardh) Yamagishi & Masuda C 
Hypnea tenuis Kylin C 
Hypnea unilateralis P.J.L.Dangeard C 
Hypnea ustulata (Mertens ex Turner) Montagne S 
Hypnea vaga Kützing C 
Hypnea valentiae (Turner) Montagne C 
Hypnea valentiae var. gardneri Hollenberg C 
Hypnea valentiae var. hamulosa (Esper) Decaisne S 
Hypnea valida J.Agardh S 
Hypnea variabilis Okamura C 
Hypnea viridis Papenfuss C 
Hypnea volubilis Searles C 
Hypnea wurdemannii Harvey S 
Hypnea wynnei Nauer, Cassano & M.C.Oliveira C 
Hypnea yamadae Tanaka C 
Hypnea yokoyana Nauer, Cassano & M.C.Oliveira C 

Saunders, G.W., Chiovitti, A. & Kraft, G.T. (2004). Small-subunit rRNA gene sequences from representatives of selected families of the Gigartinales and Rhodymeniales (Rhodophyta). 3. Recognizing the Gigartinales sensu stricto. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 43-74.

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Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 01 January 2001 by M.D. Guiry

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