147,726 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,153 images, 56,624 bibliographic items, 352,101 distributional records.

Gyrodinium Kofoid & Swezy, 1921, nom. cons.

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Gymnodiniaceae

Holotype species: Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy

Original publication and holotype designation: Kofoid, C.A. & Swezy, O. (1921). The free-living unarmored Dinoflagellata. Memoirs of the University of California 5: i-viii, 1-562.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Description: Small-to-large (<5-<200 µm) unarmored unicellular free-living, predominantly motile flagellates, sometimes enclosed in temporary cysts. Cells globular to fusiform, often dorsiventrally, rarely laterally compressed, with well-developed cingulum and sulcus, transverse and longitudinal flagella. Cingulum displaced at least 1/5 of total body length (for less cingulum displacement, see Gymnodinium). Cingulum with one turn to 1.5 turns if the cell shows torsion (for greater torsion, see Cochlodinium). Sulcus restricted to hypocone or extending to the epicone. Amphiesma delicate to rigid, smooth or with conspicuous striae on hypocone or extending to epicone. Number on epicone may be larger than on hypocone. Typical dinokaryon in some species enclosed by a perinuclear sheet, visible by light microscopy. Chloroplasts absent or present, some species with chloroplast pigments typical for prymnesiophytes, lacking the dinoflagellate pigment peridinin; pigments of other species with unusual chloroplast color not analyzed. Some species with stigma. Cytoplasm either colorless or of various colors. Nutrition phototrophic, mixotrophic, phagotrophic, or by absorption of dissolved organic material. Some species produce temporary cysts by secreting hyaline sheets, and may be confused with coccoid dinophytes. Vegetative reproduction by binary fission, sexual reproduction, including the production of hypnozygotes acting as resting cysts, known for some species. Cosmopolitan, marine, brackish and freshwater; some species inhabit snow and ice. Several species form large blooms. Gyrodinium aureolum Hulburt or a similar species, assigned also to Gymnodinium cf. nagasakiense Takayama and Adachi, produces ichthyotoxins of economic importance. Emended by G. Hansen & Moestrup (2000: 312).

Information contributed by: M. Elbrächter. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 19 Oct 2015 by M.D. Guiry.

Characters considered diagnostic of Gyrodinium: Girdle characteristically descending in a left spiral displaced more than 0.2 of the total body length.Sulcus longitudinal, or with torsion of less than half a transdiameter in the intercingular region, extending from girdle or epicone to hypocone or antapex. The nucleus is usually situated near the centre. Pusules may be present. Chromatophores rarely present. Surface smooth or with longitudinal striations. Cells shape variable but frequently ovoid or fusiform with girdle centrally positioned although epicone and hypocone can be subequal. Cells vary in lenght from 11 um to 200um. They occur in marine, brackish or freshwater and are pelagic, neriticor littoral (living in sand). Two sorts of cysts have been described a thin-walled capsule in which the individual cell retains its shape before fission and a sphaerical cyst where the individual cell rounds off, loses its flagella and is resistant (Silva, 1959).

Comments: Problems with identification This is clearly an artificial genus for when Kofoid & Swezy (1921) set it apart from the genus Gymnodinium the main criterion was that the girdle is displaced more than one fifth the length of the body. Consequently, identification of members of this genus can be problematical since the shape frequently changes under the microscope and with fixation. Shape can also be affected by changes in salinity. It is also difficult to separate this genus from Gymnodinium. Bursa (1962) has shown that Gyrodinium californicum Bursa divides to give two daughter cells one resembling a Gyrodinium , the other a Gymnodinium. Kimball & Wood (1962) working with an organism identified as Gymnodinium mirabile Penard noted different forms resembling Gymnodinium fissum (Levander) Kof. & Swezt, Gyrodinium nelsoni Martin in culture. Gyrodinium aureolum was found to become Gymnodinium like on preservation and when left in continuous dark (Braarud & Heimdal, 1970). According to Daugberg et al. (2000: 312), Gymnodinium aureum Kofoid & Swezy belongs to Gyrodinium as emended by them.

NCBI Nucleotide Sequences

Numbers of names and species: There are 142 species (and infraspecific) names in the database at present, of which 110 have been flagged as currently accepted taxonomically.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is currently accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Gyrodinium aciculatum G.Hansen & J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium acrotrochum J.Larsen S 
Gyrodinium acutum (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium adriaticum Schiller S 
Gyrodinium antarcticum Hasle C 
Gyrodinium apidiomorphum Norris C 
Gyrodinium apuntatum W.Busch C 
Gyrodinium arcticum Bursa C 
Gyrodinium ascendans Kofoid C 
Gyrodinium asymmetricum Woloszynska S 
Gyrodinium atractos J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium aureolum E.M.Hulburt S 
Gyrodinium aureum (Conrad) J.Schiller C 
Gyrodinium bepo (Schutt) P 
Gyrodinium biconicum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium bistellatum Conrad & Kufferath C 
Gyrodinium britannicum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium californicum Bursa C 
Gyrodinium calyptroglyphe Lebour S 
Gyrodinium calyptroglyphe Schiller S 
Gyrodinium calyptroglyphe Drebes S 
Gyrodinium calyptroglyphe Elbrachter S 
Gyrodinium capsulatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium carteretense P.H.Campbell C 
Gyrodinium caudatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium chiasmonetrium Norris C 
Gyrodinium citrinum Kofoid C 
Gyrodinium cladochroma J.Larsen S 
Gyrodinium cochlea Lebour C 
Gyrodinium cohnii Schiller S 
Gyrodinium complanatum P.H.Campbell C 
Gyrodinium concentricum (Lebour) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium conicum Schiller C 
Gyrodinium contortum (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium corallinum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium cornutum (Pouchet) Kofoid & Swezy P 
Gyrodinium corsicum Paulmier, Berland, Billard & Nezan S 
Gyrodinium crassum (Pouchet) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium culeus Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium cuneatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium dominans Hulbert C 
Gyrodinium dorsum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium estuariale E.M.Hulbert C 
Gyrodinium falcatum Kofoid & Swezy S 
Gyrodinium ferrugineum Kofoid C 
Gyrodinium fissoides Elbrachter C 
Gyrodinium fissum (Levander) Kofoid & Swezy S 
Gyrodinium flagellare Schiller C 
Gyrodinium flavescens Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium flavidum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium flavum Kofoid C 
Gyrodinium foliaceum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium formosum P.H.Campbell C 
Gyrodinium fucorum Kofoid & Swezy S 
Gyrodinium fulvum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium fusiforme Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium fusus (Meunier) Akselman P 
Gyrodinium galatheanum (Baarud) Taylor S 
Gyrodinium glaciale Hada C 
Gyrodinium glaebum Hulburt C 
Gyrodinium glaucum (Lebour) Kofoid & Swezy S 
Gyrodinium granlandicum Braarud C 
Gyrodinium grave (Meunier) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium grenlandicum Braarud C 
Gyrodinium grossestriatum P.H.Campbell C 
Gyrodinium gutrula J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium guttula J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium helveticum (Penard) Y.Takano & T.Horiguchi C 
Gyrodinium herbaceum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium heterogrammum J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium hyalinum (A.J.Schilling) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium impendens J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium impudicum S.Fraga & I.Bravo S 
Gyrodinium instriatum Freudenthal & J.J.Lee S 
Gyrodinium intortum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium jusiforme Koifoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium katodiniascens P.H.Campbell C 
Gyrodinium kofoidii Norris C 
Gyrodinium lachryma (Meunier) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium lacryma (Meunier) Kofoid & Swezy P 
Gyrodinium lebouriae Herdman C 
Gyrodinium leptogrammum J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium lingulifera Lebour C 
Gyrodinium linguliferum Lebour C 
Gyrodinium longum (Lohmann) Koifoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium louisae Conrad & Kufferath C 
Gyrodinium maculatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium melo Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium metum Hulburt C 
Gyrodinium mitra Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium mitrum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium moestrupii E.Y.Yoon, N.S.Kang & H.J.Jeong C 
Gyrodinium mundulum P.H.Campbell C 
Gyrodinium nagasakiense Takayama & Adachi S 
Gyrodinium nasutum (Wulff) Schiller C 
Gyrodinium nivale Lindemann S 
Gyrodinium oblongum J.Larsen & D.J.Patterson S 
Gyrodinium obtusum (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium oceaniae Okolodkov C 
Gyrodinium ochraceum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium opimum (Schütt) Lebour C 
Gyrodinium ovatum (Gourret) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium ovoideum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium ovum (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium parvulum (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium pascheri (Suchlandt) Schiller S 
Gyrodinium pavillardii Biecheler S 
Gyrodinium pellucidum (Wulff) Schiller C 
Gyrodinium pepo (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium phorkorium Norris C 
Gyrodinium pingue (Schütt) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium postmaculatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium prunus (Wulff) Lebour C 
Gyrodinium pulchellum P 
Gyrodinium pusillum (A.J.Schilling) Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium resplendens Hulburt S 
Gyrodinium rhabdomante Balech C 
Gyrodinium rubricaudatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium rubrum (Kofoid & Swezy) Y.Takano & T.Horiguichi C 
Gyrodinium rubrum (Kofoid & Swezy) Y.Takano & T.Horiguchi P 
Gyrodinium schuettii (Lemmermann) Kofoid & Swezy P 
Gyrodinium silvaticum (Lindemann) Lindemann C 
Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy C - type
Gyrodinium spirale var. acutum Schütt S 
Gyrodinium spumantia Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium steinii Skvortzov C 
Gyrodinium striatissimum (E.M.Hulburt) Gert Hansen & Ø.Moestrup C 
Gyrodinium submarinum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium sugashimanii J.Cachon, H.Saton, M.Cachon & S.Sato P 
Gyrodinium traunsteineri Lindemann S 
Gyrodinium truncatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium truncus Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium uncatenum Hulburt S 
Gyrodinium undulans Hulbert C 
Gyrodinium varians (Wulff) Schiller C 
Gyrodinium vesiculosum J.Larsen C 
Gyrodinium virgatum Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium viridescens Kofoid & Swezy C 
Gyrodinium vorax Biecheler C 
Gyrodinium vorticella (F.Stein) Er. Lindemann S 
Gyrodinium wulffii Schiller C 
Gyrodinium zeta J.Larsen C 

References
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Carty, S. (2003). Dinoflagellates. In: Freshwater Algae of North America, Ecology and Classification. (Wehr, J.D. & Sheath, R.G. Eds), pp. 685-714. San Diego: Academic Press.

Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.

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Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 06 September 2004 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 October 2015 by M.D. Guiry

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Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 28 March 2017.

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