149,967 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,386 images, 57,648 bibliographic items, 380,221 distributional records.

Staurastrum Meyen ex Ralfs, 1848

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Streptophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Charophyta
Class Conjugatophyceae (Zygnematophyceae)
Order Desmidiales
Family Desmidiaceae

Lectotype species: Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs

Original publication:Ralfs, J. (1848). The British Desmidieae. pp. [i]-xxii, [i], [1]-226, pls I-XXXV. London: Reeve, Benham & Reeve.
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Type designated in Guiry, M.D. (2013). Taxonomy and nomenclature of the Conjugatophyceae (=Zygnematophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 28: 1-29.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Guiry, M.D. (2013). Taxonomy and nomenclature of the Conjugatophyceae (=Zygnematophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 28: 1-29.

Description: Cells small to large, 2- to 12-radiate in end view, with shallow or deep median constriction (isthmus) where semicell walls overlap, and two intergrading cell morphologies. Most species with long, hollow processes on each semicell (number related to radiation pattern); processes usually with two or more terminal spinules, and possibly one or more series of denticulations, spines or verrucae along process and on apex and body of central axis of semicell. On other species, semicell angles rounded, truncate or with short processes; cell wall smooth or with rows of small granules or spinules. Chloroplasts usually one per semicell, stellate (lobed) in end view, with axial pyrenoid or with several pyrenoids in lobes extending into cell angles or processes. Nucleus in isthmus. Asexual reproduction by cell division and new semicell formation typical of Cosmarium-type desmids (see Cosmarium). Sexual reproduction by conjugation known for many species. Gametangia come together within broad gelatinous envelope; gametangia fuse in conjugation tube. Mature zygospores usually spherical, with long furcate spines. Many species cosmopolitan; others restricted to tropical areas or certain continents. Species with long processes often planktonic. Most species bethic or periphytic in acidic, oligotrophic lakes, ponds and swamps. Proposals to segregate groups of species into distinct genera generally ignored because of difficulty in establishing clear generic limits. Former Staurastrum taxa with single spine (or thickened cell wall) at each angle now referred to Staurodesmus. Palamar-Mordvintseva (1976) segregated species without long processes into several genera; not generally accepted except in Russian and Ukrainian publications. Cylindriastrum includes species with elongate angular- cylindric cells. Cosmoastrum includres species with smooth wall or with rows of granules or spinules over entire wall or only around cell angles. Raphidiastrum includes species with two or more spines at each angle and those with a single angular spine which also have rows of granules or spinules on cell wall. Placement of some taxa arbitrary since these genera have intergrading forms.

Information contributed by: J.F. Gerrath. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 12 Sep 2013 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 753 species names in the database at present, of which 585 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Staurastrum acanthastrum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum acanthocephalum Skuja C 
Staurastrum acanthophorum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum acarides Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum acerosum M.Schmidt C 
Staurastrum acestrophorum West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum aciculiferum (West) O.F.Andersson S 
Staurastrum aculeatum Meneghini ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum acutum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum aequum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum affine West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum affiniforme Grönblad C 
Staurastrum africanum N.Woodhead & R.D.Tweed U 
Staurastrum aggeratum Playfair C 
Staurastrum agumbeyense G.R.Hegde & S.G.Bharati C 
Staurastrum alandicum Cedercreutz & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum alpicola Schmidle C 
Staurastrum alpinum Raciborski C 
Staurastrum alternans Brébisson C 
Staurastrum ambiguum Turner U 
Staurastrum americanum (West & G.S.West) G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum amoenum Hilse S 
Staurastrum amphidoxon West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum amplum Skuja C 
Staurastrum anatinoides A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum anatinum Cooke & Wills C 
Staurastrum anchora West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum andamanense B.N.Prasad, N.C.Mehrotra & M.N.Srivastava C 
Staurastrum andrzejewskii Woloszynska S 
Staurastrum angolense West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum angulare W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum angulatum West C 
Staurastrum angulatum (West & G.S.West) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum angulosum M.Schmidt C 
Staurastrum anisacanthum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum ankyroides Wolle C 
Staurastrum annandaleanum P.J.Brühl & K.P.Biswas C 
Staurastrum annulatum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum antioquiense G.S.West C 
Staurastrum apiculatum Brébisson S 
Staurastrum apiculiferum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum approximatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum arachne Ralfs ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum arachnoides West S 
Staurastrum archeri West C 
Staurastrum arctiscon (Ehrenberg ex Ralfs) P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum arcuatum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum armatum Playfair C 
Staurastrum armigerum Brébisson S 
Staurastrum arnellii Boldt C 
Staurastrum ascendens P.J.Brühl & K.P.Biswas C 
Staurastrum asperum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum assurgens Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum asterias Nygaard C 
Staurastrum asteroideum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum auburnense Playfair C 
Staurastrum aureolatum Playfair C 
Staurastrum aversum P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum avicula Brébisson C 
Staurastrum bacillare Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum baculiferum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum baffinensis R.M.Whelden S 
Staurastrum barbaricum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum barbulae Nygaard C 
Staurastrum baronii West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum basidentatum Borge C 
Staurastrum bayernense Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum bellum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum bengalense W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum benkoei Schaarschmidt P 
Staurastrum besseri Woloszynska C 
Staurastrum biarcuus Taft C 
Staurastrum bibrachiatum Reinsch C 
Staurastrum bibrachiatum Wolle U 
Staurastrum bicorne Hauptfleisch C 
Staurastrum bicoronatum L.P.Johnson C 
Staurastrum bidentatum Wittrock S 
Staurastrum bieneanum Rabenhorst C 
Staurastrum bifasciatum Lütkemüller C 
Staurastrum bifidum Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum bifurcum Joshua C 
Staurastrum bigibbum Skuja C 
Staurastrum bilobum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum binum Borge U 
Staurastrum bioculatum W.R.Taylor C 
Staurastrum bispiniferum Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum bissetii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum bisulcatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum bitrapezicum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum biwaensis M.Hirano P 
Staurastrum blocklandiae Coesel & Joosten C 
Staurastrum bloklandiae Coesel & Joosten C 
Staurastrum boergesenii Raciborski C 
Staurastrum boergesenii W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum bohlinianum Schmidle C 
Staurastrum boldtii De Toni C 
Staurastrum boreale West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum borgeanum Schmidle C 
Staurastrum borgei (Kaiser) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum botanense Playfair C 
Staurastrum botrophilum Wolle C 
Staurastrum brachiatoides Coesel & Van Westen C 
Staurastrum brachiatum Ralfs ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum brachioprominens Børgesen C 
Staurastrum brachycerum Brébisson S 
Staurastrum brasiliense Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum brebissonii W.Archer S 
Staurastrum breviaculeatum G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum brevispina Brébisson C 
Staurastrum brevissimum Brébisson U 
Staurastrum bulbosum (West) Coesel C 
Staurastrum bullardii G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum bullosum A.W.Bennett U 
Staurastrum bulnheimii (Raciborski) Brook ex Teiling U 
Staurastrum burkillii West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum calodermum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum calyxoides Wolle C 
Staurastrum campanulatum Playfair C 
Staurastrum candianum Delponte S 
Staurastrum capitellatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum capitulum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum carpaticum Palamar-Mordvintseva S 
Staurastrum centenniale (Playfair) Thomasson C 
Staurastrum cerastes P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum ceratophorum Nordstedt S 
Staurastrum ceylanicum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum chaetoceras (Schröder) G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum chaetopus Hinode C 
Staurastrum chavesii Bohlin C 
Staurastrum cingulum (West & G.S.West) G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum circulare Schmidle S 
Staurastrum claviferum (Delponte) West & G.S.West P 
Staurastrum clepsydra Spencer U 
Staurastrum clepsydra Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum clevei (Wittrock) J.Roy C 
Staurastrum coarctatum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum columbetoides West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum commutatum (Kützing) G.Rabenhorst C 
Staurastrum compsobrachiatum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum conicum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum connatum (P.Lundell) J.Roy & Bisset S 
Staurastrum conspicuum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum contectum W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum contortum G.M.Smith S 
Staurastrum contortum Delponte C 
Staurastrum controversum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum convolutum Grönblad & A.M.Scott C 
Staurastrum coralloideum Playfair S 
Staurastrum cordatum F.Gay C 
Staurastrum corniculatum P.Lundell S 
Staurastrum cornubiense A.W.Bennett P 
Staurastrum cornutum W.Archer C 
Staurastrum cornutum Wolle U 
Staurastrum coronatum Wolle U 
Staurastrum coroniferum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum coronulatum Wolle C 
Staurastrum corpulentum Thomasson C 
Staurastrum cosmarae Kant & P.Gupta C 
Staurastrum cosmarioides Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum cosmospinosum (Børgesen) West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum crassangulatum Coesel C 
Staurastrum crassimamillatum Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum crenulatum (Nägeli) Delponte C 
Staurastrum cristatum (Nägeli) W.Archer C 
Staurastrum croasdaleae Teiling C 
Staurastrum cruciforme Playfair C 
Staurastrum crux I.G.Borshchow C 
Staurastrum cryptoedrum Skuja U 
Staurastrum cumbricum West C 
Staurastrum cuneatum Boldt C 
Staurastrum cuniculosum Playfair C 
Staurastrum cunningtonii G.S.West C 
Staurastrum curvatum W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum curvatum West S 
Staurastrum curvimarginatum A.M.Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum curvirostrum W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum cuspidatum Brébisson S 
Staurastrum cyathipes Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum cyclacanthum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum cyclops H.U.Ling C 
Staurastrum cyrtocerum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum dakotii Taft C 
Staurastrum dejectum Brébisson S 
Staurastrum dentatum Willi Krieger C 
Staurastrum denticulatum (Nägeli) W.Archer C 
Staurastrum diabolo Coesel C 
Staurastrum diacanthum A.Lemaire C 
Staurastrum dickiei Ralfs S 
Staurastrum dicodon Brühl & Biswas P 
Staurastrum dicroceros Ruzicka C 
Staurastrum digitatum G.S.West C 
Staurastrum dilatatum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum dimazum (Lütkemüller) Grönblad C 
Staurastrum diplacanthum De Notaris C 
Staurastrum diptilum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum dispar Brébisson C 
Staurastrum disputatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum distentum Wolle C 
Staurastrum doidgei F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich C 
Staurastrum donardense West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum dorsidentiferum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum dorsuosum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum duacense West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum dubium West C 
Staurastrum duplex Wolle C 
Staurastrum dybowskii Woloszynska C 
Staurastrum dziewulskii Eichler & Raciborski C 
Staurastrum eboracense W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum echinatum Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum echinodermum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum ecorne W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum egregium West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum egregium M.Noda & Skvortzov U 
Staurastrum ehrenbergianum (Nägeli) W.Archer P 
Staurastrum eichleri Raciborski C 
Staurastrum elaticeps A.M.Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum elegans Borge C 
Staurastrum elegantissimum L.N.Johnson C 
Staurastrum ellipticum West C 
Staurastrum eloiseanum Wolle C 
Staurastrum elongatum J.Barker C 
Staurastrum emaciatum A.M.Scott & Prescott S 
Staurastrum enorme Ralfs S 
Staurastrum ensiferum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum eoetvoesii Istvanfy C 
Staurastrum erasum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum erinaceum L.Viret C 
Staurastrum erostellum (West & G.S.West) West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum eskolense Coesel C 
Staurastrum eurycerum Skuja C 
Staurastrum eustephanum Ralfs S 
Staurastrum excavatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum exiguum Reinsch C 
Staurastrum exiguum Wolle C 
Staurastrum exile West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum eximium W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum exporrectum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum extensum (Nordstedt) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum falcatum (Corda) Ehrenberg S 
Staurastrum fennicum (Grönblad) F.A.C.Kouwets C 
Staurastrum fennicum Grönblad C 
Staurastrum festivum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum fittkaui K.Förster U 
Staurastrum flagriforme K.Förster U 
Staurastrum floriferum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum foersteri Coesel C 
Staurastrum foesteri Coesel C 
Staurastrum foliatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum fontense Playfair C 
Staurastrum forcipatum Playfair S 
Staurastrum forficulatum P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum formosum C.Bernard C 
Staurastrum franconicum Reinsch C 
Staurastrum freemanii West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum fuellebornei Schmidle C 
Staurastrum furcatum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum furcigerum (Brébisson) W.Archer C 
Staurastrum fusiforme Wolle U 
Staurastrum fusoideum H.Croasdale & E.A.Flint C 
Staurastrum galeatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum gatniense West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum gemelliparum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum geminatum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum gemmulatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum gerinkae N.Woodhead & R.D.Tweed U 
Staurastrum glabribrachiatum K.Förster U 
Staurastrum gladiosum W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum glaphyrum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum glaronense Messikommer C 
Staurastrum globosum J.Roy & J.Bisset C 
Staurastrum globulatum L.A.Brébisson C 
Staurastrum gonzalvesianum S.G.Bharati & G.R.Hegde C 
Staurastrum gracile Ralfs ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum gracillimum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum gracillimum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum grallatorium Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum grande Bulnheim S 
Staurastrum granulosum Ralfs C 
Staurastrum griffithsianum (Nägeli) W.Archer S 
Staurastrum groenbladii Skuja C 
Staurastrum guarrerae Tell C 
Staurastrum gutwinskii C.Bernard U 
Staurastrum gyrans L.N.Johnson S 
Staurastrum gyratum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum haaboeliense Wille C 
Staurastrum habeebense Irénée-Marie S 
Staurastrum handelii Skuja C 
Staurastrum hantzschii Reinsch C 
Staurastrum hardyi G.S.West C 
Staurastrum haynaldii Schaarschmidt P 
Staurastrum heimerlianum Lütkemüller C 
Staurastrum hexacerum Wittrock C 
Staurastrum hibernicum West C 
Staurastrum hirsutum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum hirtum Borge C 
Staurastrum hollandicum Coesel & Joosten S 
Staurastrum horae Brühl & Biswas C 
Staurastrum horametrum Roy C 
Staurastrum horridum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum hubeiense Y.Wei & M.Yu C 
Staurastrum hypacanthum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum hypocephalophorum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum hystrix Ralfs C 
Staurastrum ignotum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum ikapoae W.Schmidle S 
Staurastrum illusum G.S.West C 
Staurastrum iltisii Compère C 
Staurastrum inaequale Nordstedt U 
Staurastrum incisum Wolle C 
Staurastrum inconspicuum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum indentatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum indicum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum inelegans West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum inerme W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum infestum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum inflatum West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum inflexum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum informe Grönblad C 
Staurastrum insigne P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum inversenii Nygaard C 
Staurastrum involutum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum ionatum Wolle C 
Staurastrum iotanum Wolle C 
Staurastrum irregulare West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum iversenii Nygaard C 
Staurastrum jaculiferum West S 
Staurastrum japonicum (J.Roy & J.Bisset) W.B.Turner P 
Staurastrum javanicum W.B.Turner U 
Staurastrum johnsonii West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum johorense C.Bernard C 
Staurastrum julicum Pevalek C 
Staurastrum kaiseri Pevalek C 
Staurastrum kaiseri Ružicka S 
Staurastrum kalapanii B.N.Prasad & P.K.Misra C 
Staurastrum kanitzii Schaarschmidt C 
Staurastrum keuruense Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum kitchelii Wolle U 
Staurastrum kobelianum Schröder C 
Staurastrum kosmos Skuja C 
Staurastrum kouwetsii Coesel C 
Staurastrum kriegerianum Grönblad C 
Staurastrum kurilense Okada C 
Staurastrum kurzianum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum kwangsiense C.-C.Jao C 
Staurastrum labiatum Borge C 
Staurastrum laceratum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum lacustre G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum laeve Ralfs C 
Staurastrum laevis (Kützing) Ralfs P 
Staurastrum laevispinum Bisset C 
Staurastrum lanceolatum W.Archer C 
Staurastrum lapponicum (Schmidle) Grönblad C 
Staurastrum latecurvatum (Grönblad) Coesel C 
Staurastrum latiusculum West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum lenzenwegeri Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum leptacanthum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum leptocladum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum leptodermum P.Lundell S 
Staurastrum leptopus Willi Krieger C 
Staurastrum levanderi Grönblad C 
Staurastrum levispinum Bisset C 
Staurastrum lewisianum W.B.Turner U 
Staurastrum lezae Thomasson C 
Staurastrum libeltii Raciborski C 
Staurastrum limneticum Schmidle C 
Staurastrum lingii Coesel & M.Dingley C 
Staurastrum livingstonii Thomasson C 
Staurastrum loktakense Brühl & Biswas C 
Staurastrum longebrachiatum (Borge) Gutwinski C 
Staurastrum longibrachiatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum longicolle Coesel & Van Geest C 
Staurastrum longipes (Nordstedt) Teiling C 
Staurastrum longiradiatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum longispinum (Bailey) W.Archer C 
Staurastrum longissimum Borge C 
Staurastrum luetkemuelleri Donat & Ruttner ex Rutter C 
Staurastrum lunatum Ralfs S 
Staurastrum lundellii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum luteolum Lagerheim C 
Staurastrum maamense W.Archer C 
Staurastrum magdalenae Børgesen C 
Staurastrum magnifurcatum Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum magnottae A.M.Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum majusculum Wolle C 
Staurastrum mamillatum Nordstedt S 
Staurastrum manfeldtii Delponte C 
Staurastrum manipurense Brühl & Biswas C 
Staurastrum mansangense West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum margaritaceum Meneghini ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum maskellii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum mayorii G.S.West C 
Staurastrum megacanthum P.Lundell S 
Staurastrum megacanthum P.Lundell S 
Staurastrum megalonotum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum megalonotus Nordstedt P 
Staurastrum merianii Reinsch C 
Staurastrum messikommeri Lundberg S 
Staurastrum micron West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum micronoides Coesel & Joosten C 
Staurastrum microscopicum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum miedzyrczecense (B.Eicher) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum militare Behre C 
Staurastrum minimum Coesel C 
Staurastrum minneapoliense Wolle C 
Staurastrum minnesotense Wolle C 
Staurastrum minor Wolle P 
Staurastrum minutissimum Averswald C 
Staurastrum mollenhaueri R.Lenzenweger C 
Staurastrum moniliferum Playfair C 
Staurastrum montanum Raciborski S 
Staurastrum monticulosiforme West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum monticulosum var. duplex P 
Staurastrum monticulosum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum mucronatum Ralfs S 
Staurastrum multigranulosum M.Dingley C 
Staurastrum multinodulosum Grönblad C 
Staurastrum muricatiforme Schmidle C 
Staurastrum muricatum Brébisson ex Ralfs S 
Staurastrum mutabile W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum muticum Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum mutilatum P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum myrdalense (K.M.Strøm) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum nanum Wolle C 
Staurastrum natator West C 
Staurastrum nathorstii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum neglectum G.S.West C 
Staurastrum nigrae-silvae Schmidle C 
Staurastrum ningboense Y.-X.Wei C 
Staurastrum nodiferum W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum nodosum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum nodulosum Prescott C 
Staurastrum nonanum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum novae-semliae Wille C 
Staurastrum novae-terrae W.R.Taylor C 
Staurastrum nudibrachiatum Borge C 
Staurastrum nygaardii Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum oblongum Delponte C 
Staurastrum obscurum Coesel C 
Staurastrum obversum Prescott C 
Staurastrum octangulare Grönblad C 
Staurastrum octodontum Skuja C 
Staurastrum octoverrucosum A.M.Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum oenpelliense A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum okavangicum Coesel & Van Geest C 
Staurastrum oligacanthum Brébisson ex W.Archer S 
Staurastrum omearae W.Archer S 
Staurastrum onychophorum Coesel & Van Geest C 
Staurastrum ophiura P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum orbiculare Meneghini ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum orbiculispiniferum I.M.Franceschini & Couté C 
Staurastrum ordinatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum orientale W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum ornithocephalum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum ornithopodum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum osteonum West C 
Staurastrum osvaldii Skuja S 
Staurastrum oxyacanthum W.Archer C 
Staurastrum oxyrhynchum Roy & Bisset C 
Staurastrum pachyrhynchum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum paniculosum Wolle C 
Staurastrum pansum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum pantanale K.R.de Souza Santos, C.F. da Silva Malone, C.Leite Sant'Anna & C.E.de Matos Bicudo C 
Staurastrum papillosum O.Kirchner C 
Staurastrum paradoxoides Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum paradoxum Meyen ex Ralfs C - type
Staurastrum parallelum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum patens W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum paucidentatum Lemaire C 
Staurastrum paulense Børgesen C 
Staurastrum pedunculatum P 
Staurastrum pelagicum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum peleii Taft C 
Staurastrum pendulum Nygaard S 
Staurastrum pentacerum (Wolle) G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum pentacladum Wolle C 
Staurastrum pentacrinum Willi Krieger C 
Staurastrum pentasterias Grönblad C 
Staurastrum perinii Auclair C 
Staurastrum peristephes A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum pertyanum Coesel & Meesters U 
Staurastrum perundulatum Grönblad C 
Staurastrum petsamoense Järnfelt C 
Staurastrum picum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum pileatum Delponte C 
Staurastrum pileolatum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum pilosellum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum pilosum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum pilosum (Nägeli) W.Archer U 
Staurastrum pingue Teiling C 
Staurastrum pinguescens Grönblad C 
Staurastrum pinnatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum pisciforme W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum planctonicum Teiling S 
Staurastrum platycerum Joshua C 
Staurastrum playfairii A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum podlachicum Eichler & Gutwinski C 
Staurastrum pokljukense Pevalek C 
Staurastrum polonicum Raciborski C 
Staurastrum polymorphum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum polytrichum (Perty) Rabenhorst C 
Staurastrum prainii West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum prasadianum Brühl & Biswas C 
Staurastrum prescottianum C.E.M.Bicudo U 
Staurastrum prescottii W.E.Wade C 
Staurastrum prescottii C.E.M.Bicudo S 
Staurastrum prescottii S.G.Bharati & G.R.Hegde U 
Staurastrum pringsheimii Reinsch S 
Staurastrum prionotum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum proboscideum (Brébisson) W.Archer C 
Staurastrum productum (West & G.S.West) Coesel S 
Staurastrum protectum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum pseudobengalicum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum pseudobiretum Playfair C 
Staurastrum pseudocyclacanthum A.M.Scott & Croasdale C 
Staurastrum pseudodecoratum W.C.Vinyard C 
Staurastrum pseudofurcigerum Reinsch S 
Staurastrum pseudolevanderi Coesel & A.M.T.Joosten C 
Staurastrum pseudoligacanthum Maskell C 
Staurastrum pseudonanum Grönblad C 
Staurastrum pseudoneglectum A.M.Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum pseudopachyrhynchum Wolle S 
Staurastrum pseudopelagicum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum pseudopisciforme B.Eichler & R.Gutwinski C 
Staurastrum pseudoplanctonicum W. Scharf C 
Staurastrum pseudosebaldi Wille S 
Staurastrum pseudospinuliferum Bourrelly C 
Staurastrum pseudosuecicum Prescott & A.M.Scott C 
Staurastrum pseudotetracerum (Nordstedt) West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum pseudounicorne S.G.Bharati & G.R.Hegde C 
Staurastrum pseudowillsii P.Bourrelly & Couté C 
Staurastrum psilosporum Nordstedt & Löfgren S 
Staurastrum pterosporum P.Lundell S 
Staurastrum punctatuloides Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum punctulatoides Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum punctulatum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum pungens Brébisson C 
Staurastrum pusillum Wolle C 
Staurastrum pygmaeum Brébisson ex Ralfs S 
Staurastrum pyramidatum West C 
Staurastrum quadrangulare Brébisson C 
Staurastrum quadratulum Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum quadratum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum quadricornutum J.Roy & J.Bisset C 
Staurastrum quadriradiatum Coesel & Van Westen C 
Staurastrum quadrispinatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum quaternium Wolle C 
Staurastrum quebecense Irénée-Marie C 
Staurastrum quinqueradiatum Nägeli C 
Staurastrum raciborskii Gutwinski C 
Staurastrum radians West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum ralfsii (West & G.S.West) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum raphidicanthum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum ravenelii H.C.Wood C 
Staurastrum rectangulare Borge C 
Staurastrum recurvatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum reductum (Messikommer) Coesel C 
Staurastrum reinschii J.Roy S 
Staurastrum renardii Reinsch S 
Staurastrum retusum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum reynouardii F.Auclair C 
Staurastrum rhabdophorum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum rhynchoceps Willi Krieger C 
Staurastrum richianum Thomasson C 
Staurastrum ricklii Huber-Pestalozzi C 
Staurastrum riklii G.E.Huber-Pestalozzi C 
Staurastrum rosei Playfair C 
Staurastrum rostafinskii Gutwinski C 
Staurastrum rostellum Roy (& Biss) U 
Staurastrum rotula Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum rotundatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum royii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum rugosum Irénée-Marie C 
Staurastrum rugulosum Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum rusticum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum ruzickae Kouwets C 
Staurastrum rzoskae Grönblad & A.M.Scott P 
Staurastrum sagittarium Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum saltans W.Joshua C 
Staurastrum saltator Grönblad C 
Staurastrum sancti-sebaldi (Reinsch) P.Lundell C 
Staurastrum santillanae F.Caballero C 
Staurastrum saxonicum Bulnheim C 
Staurastrum scabrum Brébisson C 
Staurastrum schmidlei G.W.Prescott, C.E.Bicudo & W.C.Vinyard S 
Staurastrum schroederi Grönblad C 
Staurastrum scolopacinum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum scottii Grönblad C 
Staurastrum sebaldi Reinsch C 
Staurastrum selenaeum Grönblad S 
Staurastrum sellulum Irénée-Marie S 
Staurastrum senarium Ralfs C 
Staurastrum senticosum G.B.Delponte C 
Staurastrum serriforme Børgesen C 
Staurastrum setigerum Cleve C 
Staurastrum sexangulare (Bulnheim) Rabenhorst C 
Staurastrum sexcostatum Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum sibericum Borge C 
Staurastrum sibiricum O.Borge C 
Staurastrum simonyi Heimerl C 
Staurastrum simplicius (A.M.Scott & Grönblad) Coesel C 
Staurastrum sinense Lütkemüller C 
Staurastrum sinuatum Borge C 
Staurastrum sirnonyi Heimerl C 
Staurastrum skottsbergii G.W.F.Carlson C 
Staurastrum smaragdinum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum smithii Teiling C 
Staurastrum smithii Prescott S 
Staurastrum sonfonense N.Woodhead & R.D.Tweed C 
Staurastrum sonthalianum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum sparsum (W.B.Turner) Dürrschmidt C 
Staurastrum spetsbergense (Nordstedt) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum spicatum West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum spiculiferum G.M.Smith S 
Staurastrum spiculiferum Borge C 
Staurastrum spiculosum A.M.Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum spiniceps Willi Krieger C 
Staurastrum spiniferum West C 
Staurastrum spinipendens A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum spinolobatum C.F.Carter & D.B.Williamson C 
Staurastrum spinuliferum Maskell C 
Staurastrum splendidum Maskell C 
Staurastrum spongiosum Brébisson ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum stellatum Reinsch P 
Staurastrum stellatum Børgesen S 
Staurastrum stellatum R.Thomsen U 
Staurastrum stellatum M.Noda & Skvortzov U 
Staurastrum stelliferum Borge C 
Staurastrum stellinum W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum strensallense W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum striatum (West & G.S.West) Ruzicka C 
Staurastrum striolatum (Nägeli) W.Archer C 
Staurastrum subamoenum Maskell C 
Staurastrum subanchora Grönblad C 
Staurastrum subapiculiferum C.-C.Jao C 
Staurastrum subarmigerum Roy & Bisset C 
Staurastrum subavicula (West) West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum subboergesenii Grönblad C 
Staurastrum subbrebissonii Schmidle C 
Staurastrum subcontroversum Willi Krieger & P.Bourrelly C 
Staurastrum subcornutum De Toni C 
Staurastrum subcruciatum Cooke & Wills C 
Staurastrum subcyclacanthum C.-C.Jao C 
Staurastrum subcyclacanthum A.M.Scott S 
Staurastrum subdenticulatum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum subelegantissimum Y.-X.Wei C 
Staurastrum subexcavatum (Grönblad) Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum subfennicum Grönblad C 
Staurastrum subgemmulatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum subgracillimum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum subgrande Borge C 
Staurastrum subindentatum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum subjavanicurn A.K.M.N.Islam & Akter C 
Staurastrum subkaiseri Messikommer S 
Staurastrum sublaevispinum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum sublongipes G.M.Smith S 
Staurastrum submanfeldtii West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum submeriani K.Förster C 
Staurastrum submonticulosum Roy & Bisset C 
Staurastrum subnivale Messikommer C 
Staurastrum subnudibrachiatum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum subophiura Borge C 
Staurastrum suborbiculare West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum subosceolense Grönblad C 
Staurastrum subpinnatum Schmidle S 
Staurastrum subpolymorphum Borge C 
Staurastrum subpunctulatum F.Gay C 
Staurastrum subpygmaeum West C 
Staurastrum subradians Rich C 
Staurastrum subscabrum Nordstedt S 
Staurastrum subscolopacinum West & G.S.West S 
Staurastrum subsphaericum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum subunguiferum F.E.Fritsch & M.F.Rich S 
Staurastrum suchlandtianum Messikommer C 
Staurastrum sudamericanum Tell & C.G.Vélez U 
Staurastrum sunderbundense W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum talisheekense A.M.Scott & Grönblad C 
Staurastrum tangaroae Thomasson C 
Staurastrum tauphorum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum taylorii Grönblad C 
Staurastrum teilingii (H.Croasdale) G.W.Prescott, C.E.Bicudo & W.C.Vinyard C 
Staurastrum teliferum Ralfs C 
Staurastrum tentaculiferum Borge C 
Staurastrum tenuissimum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum terribile Borge C 
Staurastrum tetracerum Ralfs ex Ralfs C 
Staurastrum thangaicum Brühl & Biswas C 
Staurastrum thienemannii Willi Krieger C 
Staurastrum thomassonianum Compère C 
Staurastrum thomassonii Nygaard C 
Staurastrum tiara Playfair C 
Staurastrum tohopekaligense Wolle C 
Staurastrum tonsum (Nordstedt) Playfair P 
Staurastrum torsum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum tortum (Lagerheim & Nordstedt ex Wittrock) West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum trachydermum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum trachygonum West C 
Staurastrum trachytithophorum West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum trapezicum Boldt C 
Staurastrum trapezoides Coesel & Meesters C 
Staurastrum traunsteineri Hustedt C 
Staurastrum trelleckense W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum triaculeatum Gutwinski C 
Staurastrum triangulare W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum tricornutum Wolle S 
Staurastrum tridentiferum Wolle U 
Staurastrum tridentulum Playfair C 
Staurastrum trifidum Nordstedt C 
Staurastrum trifurcatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum trihedrale Wolle C 
Staurastrum triprocessum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum tripyrenoideum A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum triserrulum Irénée-Marie U 
Staurastrum triskeles Brühl & Biswas C 
Staurastrum tristichum Elfving C 
Staurastrum trisulcatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum truncatum W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum tsukubicum Gontcharov & M.M.Watanabe C 
Staurastrum tuberculatum A.W.Bennett U 
Staurastrum tumidulum F.Gay C 
Staurastrum tumidum Brébisson ex Ralfs S 
Staurastrum tunguscanum Boldt C 
Staurastrum turgescens De Notaris C 
Staurastrum turneri West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum ucrainicum Palamar-Mordvintseva S 
Staurastrum uhtuense Grönblad C 
Staurastrum undulatum West & G.S.West U 
Staurastrum ungeri Reinsch C 
Staurastrum unguiculatum H.U.Ling C 
Staurastrum unguiferum W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum unicorne W.B.Turner S 
Staurastrum uplandicum Teiling P 
Staurastrum urinator G.M.Smith C 
Staurastrum varians Raciborski S 
Staurastrum ventricosum Maskell C 
Staurastrum verruciferum C.-C.Jao C 
Staurastrum verticillatum W.Archer C 
Staurastrum vesiculatum Wolle C 
Staurastrum vestitum Ralfs C 
Staurastrum victoriense G.S.West C 
Staurastrum volans West & G.S.West C 
Staurastrum wallichii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum wandae Raciborski S 
Staurastrum westii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum wildemanii Gutwinski C 
Staurastrum willsii W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum woronichinii Palamar-Mordvintseva S 
Staurastrum wuhanense Y.-X.Wei C 
Staurastrum xanthium Willi Krieger C 
Staurastrum yirrkallense A.M.Scott & Prescott C 
Staurastrum zahlbruckneri Lütkmüller C 
Staurastrum zambiense Coesel & Van Geest U 
Staurastrum zelleri W.B.Turner C 
Staurastrum zonatum Børgesen C 

References
Hall, J.D., Karol, K.G., McCourt, R.M. & Delwiche, C.F. (2008). Phylogeny of the conjugating green algae based on chloroplast and mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data. Journal of Phycology 44: 467-477.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 12 September 2013 by M.D. Guiry

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Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 November 2017.

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