159,446 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,547 images, 62,042 bibliographic items, 464,197 distributional records.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus 1753

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

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Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Barrow Island, Western Australia. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
recolectada en la zona Habana-Matanzas. Hábito. Foto: Yusimí Alfonso..

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Barbados stamp Barbados stamp. 07 Apr 2013. © Barbados.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 28 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Low intertidal. Insert: habit (Peter the Great Bay, Russia).. 09 Mar 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova. © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Collected near Roscoff (F), December 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Selce, northern Croatia. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Zeeland delta, Netherlands. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Scotland, Oban area east coast. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
Dixon Island, Barkley Sound, British Columbia, Canada.. Colin Bates (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca). © Coastal Imageworks (colinba@interchange.ubc.ca).

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18 Found - Displaying 1 through 10

 

Anadyomene rhizoidifera A.B.Joly & S.Pereira

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus
© ABC Taxa (eric.coppejans@ugent.be)

Publication details
Ulva lactuca Linnaeus 1753: 1163

Published in: Linnaeus, C. (1753). Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Vol. 2 pp. [i], 561-1200, [1-30, index], [i, err.]. Holmiae [Stockholm]: Impensis Laurentii Salvii.
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Publication date: 1 May 1753

Original description:  Download PDF

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), lettuce (Lewis & Short 1890).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Phyllona lactuca (Linnaeus) F.H.Wiggers 1780
Monostroma lactuca (Linnaeus) J.Agardh 1883

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva fasciata Delile 1813
Ulva lactucaefolia S.F.Gray 1821
Ulva lactuca f. fasciata (Delile) Hering 1846
Ulva lobata (Kützing) Harvey 1855
Phycoseris fasciata (Delile) Montagne 1856
Ulva crassa Kjellman 1877
Ulva tenera Kornmann & Sahling 1994

Taxonomic notes
Genetic analyses performed on the U. lactuca Linnaean holotype and the U. fasciata epitype showed that the U. lactuca holotype is nearly identical in rbcL sequence to the epitype of U. fasciata, a warm temperate to tropical species, rather than the cold temperate species to which the name U. lactuca has generally been applied (Hughey et al. 2019). - (16 Jun 2010) - M.D. Guiry

Distributional notes
Cormaci, Furnari & Alongi (2014: 109) reject records of this entity from the Mediterranean Sea.

Usage notes
Crop and biofilter of fishpond effluents (Msuya & Neori 2010). - (8 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ulva lactuca Linnaeus)
?: Ihixlhewis, Gamgamet (Madlener 1977).

Arabic: Tahalib (F.A.O. 1997).

Chinese: Hai Tsai, Shih shun, Haisai Kun-po, Kwanpo (Madlener 1977).

English: Sea lettuce, Lettuce laver, Green Laver, Sea Grass, Thin stone brick (Madlener 1977), Chicory sea lettuce (F.A.O. 1997).

French: Laitue de mer (Boisvert 1984).

German: Meersalat (Madlener 1977).

Japanese: Aosa (Madlener 1977).

Kwakwaka'wakw: Klop-tsai-yup (Madlener 1977).

Portuguese: Alface-do-mar (Oliveira, 1990).

Spanish: Luche, Luchi (Madlener 1977).

Swedish: Havssallat (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

(as Ulva fasciata Delile)
Hawaiian: Limu papahapapa (Chapman & Chapman 1980), Pahapaha, Limu Pahapaha (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983), Limu Palahalaha, Pakaiea, Papahapaha (Abbott 1984).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
green laver {Eng}; sea lettuce {Eng}; meerlattich {Ger}; laitue de mer {Fr}; "laver, green"; "laver, lettuce"; "lettuce, sea"

Type information
Type locality: "in Oceano" [Atlantic Ocean] (Linnaeus 1753: 1163). Lectotype: LINN 1275.24 Notes: The type is marked "5" and agrees well with Linnaeus's description, and the number five is assigned to Ulva lactuca in Species plantarum (Papenfuss 1960). Molecular data indicate that the holotype specimen of U. lactuca probably came from the Indo-Pacific rather than northern Europe (Hughey et al. 2019).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Ulva lactuca Linnaeus)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957, Lee 1980), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen & al. 1999, Fredriksen & al. 2019).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (Price & John 1980, John & al. 2004), Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994, Parente, Hughey & al. 2019), Bermuda (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Cape Verde Islands (John & al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005, Gabriel & Fredericq 2019), Gough Island (Chamberlain 1965), Greenland (Pedersen 2011), Iceland (Hooker 1811, Caram & Jónsson 1972), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John & al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, John & al. 2004), St Helena (John & al. 2004), Tristan da Cunha (Baardseth 1941).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Munda 1979, Ercegovic 1980), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Britain (Burrows 1991 , Hardy & Guiry 2003 , Brodie & al. 2007 , Loughnane & al. 2008 , Kientz et al. 2011 , Marconi et al. 2011 , Flewelling et al. 2013 , Brodie & al. 2016 ), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961), Corsica (Gallardo & al. 1993), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006 ), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1937, Coppejans 1972, Dubois 1972, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Gallardo & al. 1993 , Coppejans & Kling 1995, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017 ), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Hünken et al 2005, Sebök et al. 2019 , Steinhagen et al.), Greece (Diannelidis 1953, Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo & al. 1993, Christia et al. 2011), Helgoland (Kornmann & Sahling 1994 , Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000 , Lam & Harder 2007 ), Ireland (Adams 1907 , Adams 1908 , Cotton 1912 , Cotton 1913 , Cullinane 1969 , Cullinane 1971 , Guiry 1977 , Pybus 1977 , Guiry 1978 , De Valéra & al. 1979 , Whelan & Cullinane 1985 , Burrows 1991 , Morton 1994 , Hayden & Waaland 2004 , Guiry 2012 ), Italy (Hughey & al. 2019 ), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983 , Stegenga & al. 1997 , Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007 ), Norway (Brattegard & Holte 2001 , Kleiven et al. 2019 ), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araújo & al. 2009, Lopes et al. 2011), Romania (Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Spain (Miranda 1931, Miranda 1934, Seoane-Camba 1965, Gallardo & al. 1985, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016), Spitsbergen (Vinogradova 1995), Sweden (Kylin 1907 , Kylin 1949 , Tolstoy & Österlund 2003 ), Ukraine (Burova & al. 2011).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Lindstrom 1977 , Hayden & Waaland 2004 , Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010 ), Baja California (Norris 2010), British Columbia (Hayden & Waaland 2004 , Saunders & Kucera 2010 ), California (CA) (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976 , Hayden & Waaland 2004 , Miller 2012 , Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Connecticut (CT) (Schneider et al. 1979, Van Patten 2009, Kraemer et al. 2017), Delaware (DE) (Madden et al. 2012), Florida (FL) (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974, Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008, Hughey & al. 2019), Gulf of California (Setchell & Gardner 1924, Dawson 1944, Norris, Aguilar-Rosas & Pedroche 2017), Maine (ME) (Mathieson & al. 2001, Saunders & Kucera 2010, Field et al. 2018), Manitoba (Saunders & Kucera 2010, Saunders & McDevit 2013), Mexico (Castaneda-Fernández de Lara et al. 2010 , Pedroche & Sentíes 2020), Mississippi (MS) (Taylor 1960), New Brunswick (Saunders & Kucera 2010), New Hampshire (HN) (Mathieson & Hehre 1986, Mathieson & Hehre 1986, Mathieson & Dawes 2002, Hofman et al. 2010), Newfoundland (Taylor 1957), Nova Scotia (Scrosati 2016), Oregon (OR) (Hayden & Waaland 2004 , Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al. 2018), Prince Edward Island (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Québec (Taylor 1957), Rhode Island (RI) (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Texas (TX) (Taylor 1960, Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013), Virginia (VA) (Madden et al. 2012), Washington (WA) (Hayden & Waaland 2004 ).

Central America: Costa Rica (Taylor 1945, Taylor 1960, Fernández-García & al. 2011), El Salvador (Fernández-García & al. 2011), Gulf of California (Ochoa-Izaguirre & Soto-Jiménez 2015, Chávez-Sánchez et al. 2017), Islas Revillagigedo (Setchell & Gardner 1930, Taylor 1945), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2005), Panama (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Alabama (AL) (Taylor 1960), Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Caribbean (Taylor 1957, Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004, Suárez 2005, Jover Capote & Lake Barragán 2008, Castellanos González, Moreira González & León Pérez 2012, Gonzáles & al. 2014, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014, Torres Conde & Martínez-Daranas 2019), Curaçao (Fricke & al. 2018), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Delnatte & Wynne 2016), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Trinidad (Taylor 1960, Richardson 1975), Trinidad & Tobago (Duncan & Lee Lum 2006).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Croce & al. 2015), Brazil (Taylor 1930, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Lourenço & al. 2005, Castelar et al. 2009, Coto & Pupo 2009, Villaca et al. 2010, Moura 2010, Carvalho et al. 2017, Carvalho et al. 2017), Chile (Chapman & Chapman 1980, Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997, Leonardi et al 2006, Hughey & al. 2019), Colombia (Taylor 1960), Ecuador (Taylor 1945), Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945, Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011), Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Aldon Coca, Juscamaita Morales & Gil Kodaka 2008, Hughey & al. 2019, Avila-Peltroche & Padilla-Vallejos 2020), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Howe 1931, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo & al. 1993, Bachir Bouiadjra et al. 2010), Angola (John & al. 2004), Benin (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Congo (John & al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968), Gambia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Guinea (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritania (John & al. 2004), Mauritius (Børgesen 1940, Børgesen 1946, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Moussa & al. 2018), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Senegal (John & al. 2004, John & al. 2004), Sierra Leone (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Sudan (Papenfuss 1968, Osman & Mohammed 2016), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Togo (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987), Western Sahara (John & al. 2004).

Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Christmas Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Rodrigues Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, De Clerck & al. 2004), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Middle East: Bahrain (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Cyprus (Taskin & al. 2013), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968, Aleem 1993, Elrefaii et al. 2012, Issa et al. 2014, Shabaka 2018, Hughey & al. 2019), Iran (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999, Kokabi & Yousefzadi 2015), Iraq (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Al-Saboonchi, A.A. & Al-Shawi, I.J.M.), Israel (Nemlich & Danin 1964, Papenfuss 1968, Einav & Israel 2008, Hughey & al. 2019), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Al-Yamani & al. 2014), Oman (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Wynne 2018), Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Gallardo & al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Aysel 2005, Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019), Yemen (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Abu Dhabi (John 2005), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Ahmed & al. 2008), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Athiperumalsami et al. 2010, Suryanarayanan et al. 2010, Gupta 2012, Gupta 2012, Rao & Gupta 2015, Rao & Gupta 2015, Rao & Gupta 2015, Kazi et al. 2016 , Hughey & al. 2019), Karnataka (Yadav & Palanisamy 2020), Lebanon (Bitar & al. 2017 ), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Shahnaz & Shameel 2007), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Coppejans & al. 2009, Hughey & al. 2019).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Malaysia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Myanmar (Burma) (Soe-Htun & al. 2009), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Liao, Belleza & Gerldino 2013, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Pham & al. 2011, Fong et al. 2018), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Abbott, Fisher & McDermid 2002, Tsutsui et al. 2005, Tien 2007, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Zou & al. 2007, Liu 2008, Tseng 2009, Titlyanov et al. 2011, Ding & Luan 2013), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov & al. 2015, Titlyanov & al. 2019), Japan (Yoshida 1998 , Shimada et al. 2003 , Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015 , Titlyanov & al. 2019 , Hughey & al. 2019), Kamchatka (Vozzhinskaja 1965), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008, Bae 2010, Hughey & al. 2019), Russia (Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012 ), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Kozhenkova 2020), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014, Lee et al 2005, Li et al. 2013).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Huisman 2019), Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997), Lord Howe Island (Lewis 1987, Millar & Kraft 1994, Kraft 2000, Kraft 2007), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994, Hughey & al. 2019), New Zealand (Chapman 1956, Adams 1994, Adams 1997, Heesch et al. 2009 , Broady & al. 2012), Norfolk Island (Lewis 1987, Millar 1999), Queensland (Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010, Hughey & al. 2019), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Victoria (Womersley 1984), Western Australia (Huisman 2015, Hughey & al. 2019).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Easter Island (Børgesen 1924, Santelices & Abbott 1987), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), French Polynesia (Pari & N'Yeurt 1999, Pari & N'Yeurt 1999, Payri, N'Yeurt & Orempuller 2000), Guam (Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Hughey & al. 2019), Jarvis I. & Kingman Reef (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), New Caledonia (Payri 2007, Hughey & al. 2019).

Subantarctic Islands: Amsterdam Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Georgia (Wells, Brewin & Brickle 2011), South Shetland Islands (Wiencke & Clayton 2002).

(as Ulva fasciata Delile)
Atlantic Islands: Azores (Loughnane & al. 2008), Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Haroun & al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John & al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John & al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005, Gabriel & Fredericq 2019), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John & al. 2004).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Ercegovic 1980, Gallardo & al. 1993), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), France (Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo & al. 1993, Tsiamis & al. ), Italy (Gallardo & al. 1993, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Miladi et al. 2008), Spain (Gallardo & al. 1985, Gallardo & al. 1993), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

North America: Florida (FL) (Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974, Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Gulf of California (Norris, Aguilar-Rosas & Pedroche 2017), Mexico (Aguilar-Rosas & al. 2005), Mexico (Atlantic) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017), North Carolina (NC) (Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), South Carolina (SC) (Schneider & Searles 1991), Texas (TX) (Taylor 1960, Hayden & Waaland 2004, Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013).

Central America: Belize (Taylor 1960), Costa Rica (Taylor 1960, Fernández-García & al. 2011), Gulf of California (Ochoa-Izaguirre & Soto-Jiménez 2015).

Caribbean Islands: Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004, Suárez 2005), Curaçao (Fricke & al. 2018), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Rodríguez-Prieto, Michanek & Ivon 1999, Delnatte & Wynne 2016), Netherlands Antilles (Taylor 1960), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Trinidad & Tobago (Taylor 1960, Richardson 1975, Duncan & Lee Lum 2006), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930, Taylor 1930, Joly 1957, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Coto & Pupo 2009, Villaca et al. 2010 , Moura 2010, Batista et al. 2014), Colombia (Taylor 1960), Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945, Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011), Uruguay (Taylor 1939, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo & al. 1993, Ould-Ahmed & al. 2019), Angola (John & al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Equatorial Guinea (John & al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Guinea (John & al. 2004), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Libya (Gallardo & al. 1993), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritania (John & al. 2004), Mauritius (Børgesen 1940, Børgesen 1946, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Mozambique (Bandeira, António & Critchley 2001), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002, John & al. 2004), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Senegal (John & al. 2004), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997, Coppejans, Leliaert & Verbruggen 2005, Stirk et al. 2009), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Western Sahara (John & al. 2004).

Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Middle East: Egypt (Aleem 1993, Gallardo & al. 1993), Iran (Sohrabi pour, J. & Rabii, R., 1996, Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999, Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Israel (Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008, Shefer et al. 2017 , Israel & Einav 2017, Krupnik & al. 2018), Oman (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Wynne 2018), Turkey (Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Gallardo & al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin & al. 2008 ), Yemen (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Suryanarayanan et al. 2010, Gupta 2012, Rao & Gupta 2015), Levant states (Gallardo & al. 1993), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Shahnaz & Shameel 2007), Sri Lanka (Børgesen 1936, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Coppejans & al. 2009).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987), Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Pham & al. 2011), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Tien 2007).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008, Wang 2012, Ding & Luan 2013), Japan (Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Shimada et al. 2003, Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012, Matsumoto & Shimada 2015, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Lee 2008, Bae 2010), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014, Lee et al 2005, Hsu & Lee 2010, Chen 2011).

Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Womersley 1984, Millar & Kraft 1994, Hayden & Waaland 2004, Kirkendale & al. 2013), New Zealand (Chapman 1956, Adams 1994, Heesch et al. 2009, Broady & al. 2012), Norfolk Island (Lewis 1987, Millar 1999), Papua New Guinea (Coppejans & al. 2001), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Western Australia (Huisman 2008 , Kraft, Kraft & Waller).

Pacific Islands: Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Magruder & Hunt 1979, Abbott & Huisman, 2004, Hayden & Waaland 2004, McDermid & al. 2005, Beach & al. 2006, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007), New Caledonia (Payri 2007).

(as Ulva lactuca f. fasciata (Delile) Hering)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva lobata (Kützing) Harvey)
North America: Baja California (Norris 2010, Chávez-Sanchez et al. 2019), British Columbia (Saunders & Kucera 2010), California (CA) (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Silva 1979, Hayden & Waaland 2004, Miller 2012, Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Gulf of California (Norris, Aguilar-Rosas & Pedroche 2017), Oregon (OR) (Hayden & Waaland 2004).

Central America: Costa Rica (Fernández-García & al. 2011), El Salvador (Fernández-García & al. 2011), Guatemala (Fernández-García & al. 2011), Gulf of California (Ochoa-Izaguirre & Soto-Jiménez 2015, Chávez-Sánchez et al. 2017), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2005).

South America: Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997), Ecuador (Taylor 1945), Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945, Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: India (Sahoo et al. 2001, Gupta 2012, Rao & Gupta 2015).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Adams 1994).

(as Phycoseris fasciata (Delile) Montagne)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Monostroma lactuca (Linnaeus) J.Agardh)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1907).

(as Ulva tenera Kornmann & Sahling)
Europe: Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000).

Key references
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Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Aldon Coca, D., Juscamaita Morales, J. & Gil Kodaka, P. (2008). Aprovechamiento de la macroalga Ulva lactuca en la producción de bioabono líquido a través del porceso de ensilaje. ALGAS. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Ficología 39: 13 - 15.
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Bekheet, I. A., Kandil, K. M. & Shaban, N. Z. (1984). Studies on urease extracted from Ulva lactuca. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 580-583.
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Msuya, F.E. & Neori, A. (2010). The performance of spray-irrigated Ulva lactuca (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) as a crop and as a biofilter of fishpond effluents (Note). Journal of Phycology 46(4): 813-817.
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