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Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C.Silva

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Solieriaceae
Genus Kappaphycus


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Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C.Silva
Nusa, Bali; subtidal farm. Robert Anderson. © Robert Anderson (Robert.Anderson@uct.ac.za).

Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C.Silva
Nusa, Bali; drying plants. Robert Anderson. © Robert Anderson (Robert.Anderson@uct.ac.za).

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Episperma australis (Sonder) Kuntze

Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C.Silva Jardim, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro state , Brazil, 2010

Publication details
Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C.Silva in P.C.Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 333

Published in: Silva, P.C., Basson, P.W. & Moe, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the benthic marine algae of the Indian Ocean. University of California Publications in Botany 79: 1-1259.

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Kappaphycus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Eucheuma alvarezii Doty

Type information
Holotype locality: Creagh Reef, south of Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia (Doty 1985: 38). Holotype: 13 October 1978; Growing attached to calcareous solid materials of detrital origin near the channel west of Karindingan Island on Creagh Reef. BISH MSD 28727 (Doty 1985: 38). Notes: Within 0.5 km of this same site, paratype collections were made of similar specimens on 10 July 1979 and 25 October 1979 (distributed to BISH,US).

Named for Mr. Vicente Alvarez, a biologist of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources who became the first Manager of Marine Colloids in the Philippines.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Eucheuma alvarezii Doty 1985

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Eucheuma cottonii var. erecta No authority known
Eucheuma cottonii Weber-van Bosse 1913

Nomenclatural notes
Invalid publication of combination by Doty (1988): inadequate citation of basionym; subsequently validated by P.C. Silva.

Distributional notes
Introduced into Fiji (N'Yeurt et al., 1996) and Hawaiian Islands (Abbott, 1999). Doty (1988: 172) notes that this species has been distributed widely by humans in recent years.

Usage notes
According to Solis et al. (2010), three isolates of marine fungi (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terreus and Phoma sp. induced ice-ice disease symptoms (thallus bleaching) in healthy, non-axenic cultures of K. alvarezii. Suárez, Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso (2014: 97): "... se trata de una especie propia del Indopacífico, introducida en Cuba para la obtención de carragenanos. Actualmente se mantiene en crecimiento en un área de la costa norte de La Habana." - (14 Jan 2011) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Eucheuma cottonii var. erecta No authority known)
South-east Asia: Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987).

(as Eucheuma cottonii Weber-van Bosse)
Asia: Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987).

Pacific Islands: Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003).

(as Eucheuma alvarezii Doty)
South-east Asia: Malaysia (Doty 1985), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987).

(as Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C.Silva)
Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Suárez 2005, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

Africa: Kenya (Wakibia et al 2006).

South-west Asia: India (Rao & Gupta 2015).

Asia: China (Xia & Zhang 1999, Liu 2008, Liu et al. 2011), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2016), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012), Malaysia (Doty 1988), Philippines (Doty 1988, Solis et al. 2010, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Vietnam (Tsutsui et al. 2005, Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Pacific Islands: Federated States of Micronesia (Doty 1988, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), Hawaiian Islands (Abbott 1999, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007 ), Tahiti (Littler & Littler 2003).

Key references
Doty, M.S. (1988). Podromus ad systematica Eucheumatoideorum: a tribe of commercial seaweeds related to Eucheuma (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales). In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.2, pp. 159-207. La Jolla: California Sea Grant College Program [Report T-CSGCP-018].

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka.

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Created: 19 January 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 28 March 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 43836 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Ask, E.I., Batibasaga, J.A., Zertuche-Gonzalez, J.A. & de San, M. (2003). Three decades of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta) introduction to non-endemic locations. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 49-58.
Ask, E.I., Ledua, E., Batibasaga, A. & Mario, S. (2003). Developing the cottonii (Kappaphycus alvarezii) cultivation industry in the Fiji Islands. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 81-86.
Azanza, R.V. & Aliaza, T.T. (1999). In vitro carpospore release and germination in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty) from Tawi-Tawi, Philippines. Botanica Marina 42: 281-284.
Azanza, R.V. & Ask, E.I. (2003). Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty carposporeling growth and development in the laboratory . Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 95-100.
Bulboa, C., de Paula, E.J. & Chow, F. (2008). Germination and survival of tetraspores of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta) introduced in subtropical waters of Brazil . Phycological Research 56(1): 39-45.
Bulboa, C.R. & de Paula, E.J. (2005). Introduction of non-native species of Kappaphycus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in subtropical waters: Comparative analysis of growth rates of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Kappaphycus striatum in vitro and in the sea in south-eastern Brazil. Phycological Research 53(3): 183-188.
Castelar, B., Reis, R.P., Moura, A.L. & Kirk, R. (2009). Invasive potential of Kappaphycus alvareziioff the south coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil: a contribution to environmentally secure cultivation in the tropics . Botanica Marina 52(4): 283-289.
Dawes, C. J., Trono Jr., G. C. & Lluisma, A. O. (1993). Clonal propagation of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii for Philippine seaweed farms. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 379-383.
Dawes, C.J. (1992). Irradiance acclimination of the cultured Phillipine seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum. Botanica Marina 35: 189-195.
De Paula, E.J., Erbert, C., Pereira, R.T.L. (2001). Growth rate of the carrageenophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, gigartinales) in vitro. Phycological Research 49: 155-162.
De Paula, E.J., Pereira, R.T.L. & Ohno, M. (2002). Growth rate of the carrageenophyte Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) introduced in subtropical waters of São Paolo State, Brazil. Phycological Research 50(1): 1-10.
Ganzon-Fortes, E.T., Azanza-Corrales, R. & Aliaza, T. (1993). Comparison of photosynthetic responses of healthy and 'diseased' Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty using P vs I curve. Botanica Marina 36: 503-506, 1 fig, 2 tables.
Granbom, M., Lopes, P.F., Pedersén, M. & Colepicolo, P. (2007). Nitrate reductase in the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta): oscillation due to the protein level. Botanica Marina 50(2): 106-112.
Granbom, M., Pedersén, M., Kadel, P. & Lüning, K. (2001). Circadian rhythm of photosynthetic oxygen evolution in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta): dependence on light quantity and quality. Journal of Phycology 37: 1020-1025.
Hayashi, L., Yokoya, N.S., Kikuchi, D.M. & Oliveira, E.C. (2009). Callus induction and micropropagation improved by colchicine and phytoregulators in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 203-209, 4 figs.
Hurtado-Ponce, A.Q. (1992). Cage culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tambalang. Journal of Applied Phycology 4: 311-313.
Hurtado-Ponce, A.Q. (1995). Carrageenan properties and proximate composition of three morphotypes of Kappaphycus alvarezii Doty (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) grown at two depths. Botanica Marina 38: 215-219, 4 tables.
Jacobsen, S., Lüning, K. & Goulard, F. (2003). Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the marine macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 39: 888-896.
José de Paula, E., Pereira, R.T.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). Strain selection in Kappaphycus alvarezii var. alvarezii (Soleiriaceae, Rhodophyta) using tetraspore progeny. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 625-635.
Largo, D.B., Fukami, K. & Nishijima, T. (1999). Time-dependant attachment mechanism of bacteral pathogen during ice-ice infection in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 643-650.
Largo, D.B., Fukami, K., Adachi, M. & Nishijima, T. (1997). Note: Direct enumeration of bacteria from macroalgae by epifluorescence microscopy as applied to the fleshy red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria spp. (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 33: 554-557, 4 figs.
Lechat, H., Amat, M., Mazoyer, J., Buléon, A. & Lahaye, M. (2000). Structure and distribution of glucomannan and sulfated glucan in the cell walls of the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 36: 891-902.
Loureiro, R.R., Reis, R.P. & Critchley, A.T. (2010). In vitro cultivation of three Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Areschougiaceae) variants (green, red and brown) exposed to a commercial extract of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucaceae, Ochrophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 22: 101-104.
Montolalu, R.I., Tashiro, UY., Matsukawa, S. & Ogawa, H, (2009). Effects of extraction parameters on gel properties of carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 71-76, 3 figs, 2 tables.
Ohno, M., Huynh, Q.N. & Hirase, S. (1995). On the gowth of cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii in Viet Nam. Japanese Journal of Phycology 43: 19-22.
Paula, E.J., Pereira, R.T.L. & Ostini, S. (1996). Experimental culture of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty from the Philippines in São Paulo Littoral. Soc. Ficol. Amer. Lat. Caribe, Soc. Bras. Ficol., Caxambu : 162.
Reddy, C.R.K., Kumar, G.R.K., Siddhanta, A.K., Tewari, A. & Eswaran, K. (2003). In vitro somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of somatic embryos from pigmented callus of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Journal of Phycology 39: 610-616.
Rui, L., Jiajun, L. & Chaoyuan, W. (1990). Effect of ammonium on growth and carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 499-503.
Rui, L., Jiajun, L. & Chaoyuan, W. (1990). Effect of ammonium on growth and carrageenan content in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 499-503.
Satari, R. (1993). Some chemical characteristics of carrageenan from cultivated Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty in Indonesia. Korean Journal of Phycology 8(2): 245-248, 3 figs, 1 table.
Schubert, H., Gerbersdorf, S., Titlyanov, E., T., Titlyanova, T., Granbom, C.P. & Lüning, K. (2004). Circadian rhythm of photosynthesis in Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta): independence of the cell cycle and possible photosynthetic clock targets. European Journal of Phycology 39: 423-430.
Solis, M.J.L., Draeger, S. & dela Cruz, T.E.E. (2010). Marine-derived fungi from Kappaphycus alvarezii and K. striatum as potential causative agents of ice-ice disease in farmed seaweeds. Botanica Marina 53(6): 587-594.
Vairappan, C.S. (2007). Seasonal occurrences of epiplytic algae on the commercially cultivated red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 385-391.
Zablackis, E., Vreeland, V., Doboszewski, B. & Laetsch, W.M. (1991). Differential localization of carrageenan gelling sequences in Kappaphycus alvarezii var. tambalang (Rhodophyta) with FITC-conjugated carrageenan oligosaccharides. Journal of Phycology 27: 241-248.
Zhang, Z., Pang, T., Li, Q., Zhang, L., Li, L. & Liu, J. (2015). Transcriptone sequencing and characterization for Kappaphycus alvarezii. European Journal of Phycology 50(4): 400-407.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 August 2017.

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