149,478 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,332 images, 57,479 bibliographic items, 379,359 distributional records.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Cystocloniaceae
Genus Hypnea

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
recolectada en la zona Sur del Macizo Guamuhaya. Detalle de las ramas. Foto: Ángel Moreira.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
South west of France, 2014,. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Hypnea musciformis, microscope tetrasporangia, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2009, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Hypnea musciformis, microscope, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2009, Ignacio Bárbara . Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Hypnea musciformis, microscope, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2009, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Hypnea musciformis, lower intertidal, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
South of Portugal, 2011. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; scale is 5 mm. 01 Jul 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman. From: Huisman JM, Abbott IA, Smith CM (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. 264 p. Available from Seagrant, University of Hawai'i.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; hooked apices; scale 1 mm. 01 Jul 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman; scale 1 mm. From: Huisman JM, Abbott IA, Smith CM (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. 264 p. Available from Seagrant, University of Hawai'i.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Tanzania. Katrin Østerlund. © Katrin Oesterlund (Katrin.Osterlund@uadm.uu.se). From: Oliveira, E., Österlund, K. & Mtolera, M.S.P. (2005). Marine Plants of Tanzania. A field guide to the seaweeds and seagrasses. pp. 267, Numerous coloured illustrations and line drawings. Stockholm: Botany Department, Stockholm University.

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Publication details
Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux 1813: 43 (131 in reprint)

Published in: Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1813). Essai sur les genres de la famille des thalassiophytes non articulées. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 20: 21-47, 115-139, 267-293, pls 7-13.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Hypnea.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus musciformis Wulfen

Type information
Type locality: Trieste, Italy (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 300).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), moss-like.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus musciformis Wulfen 1791
Ceramium musciforme (Wulfen) Ruchinger 1818
Sphaerococcus musciformis (Wulfen) C.Agardh 1822
Hypnophycus musciformis (Wulfen) Kützing 1843

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Sphaerococcus divaricatus C.Agardh 1827
Hypnea rissoana J.Agardh 1842
Hypnea arborescens P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1865

Distributional notes
Guiry (1997) notes this may occur on the south coast of England.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Fucus musciformis Wulfen)
Europe: Balearic Islands (Clemente 1818), Spain (Roxas Clemente y Rubio 1807).

(as Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Curiel et al. 2012), Apulia (Bottalico et al. 2016), Balearic Islands (Colmeiro, M. 1868, Piccone 1889, Rodríguez y Femenías 1889, Garcías 1919, Bellón 1921, Bellón 1942, Navarro & Bellón 1945, Gómez Garreta 1983, Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1984), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977, Coppejans 1979, Sales & Ballesteros 2010), France (Coppejans 1972, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007 , Anon. 2017), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987, Christia et al. 2011), Isla de Alborán (Conde & Flores Moya 2000), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Feoli & Bressan 1972, Edwards et al. 1975, Cecere et al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Furnari et al. 2003, Serio et al 2006), Malta (Price 1970, Cormaci et al. 1997), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Cremades et al., 2002, Araújo et al., 2003, Araújo et al. 2009), Sardinia (Furnari et al. 2003), Spain (Lázaro Ibiza 1889, Sauvageau 1897, Miranda 1931, Seoane-Camba 1965, Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Barcelo & Seoane 1982, Fernández & Niell 1982, Fernández, Niell & Anadón 1983, Pérez-Ruzafa & Honrubia 1984, Gallardo et al. 1985, Anadón & Fernández 1986, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Soto & Conde 1989, Flores-Moya et al. 1994, Conde et al. 1996, Rodríguez-Prieto & Polo, L. 1996, Rodriguez-Prieto & Polo Albertí 1998, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Valenzuela Miranda 2002, Bárbara et al., 2003, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Peña & Bárbara 2006, Pérez-Ruzafa et al. 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2008, de los Santos, Pérez-Lloréns & Vergara 2009, Mercado et al. 2009, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010, Pinedo et al. 2013), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971, Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Taskin et al. 2008 , Percot, Yalcin, Aysel, Erdugan, Durral & Guven 2009).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Børgesen 1929, Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, Parente et al. 2000, John et al. 2004).

North America: Connecticut (Kraemer et al. 2017), Florida (Schneider & Searles 1991, Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Mexico (Taylor 1960), Mexico (Caribbean) (Taylor 1972, Vásquez-Delfín et al. 2016), North Carolina (Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991, Kapraun & Dunwoody 2002), South Carolina (Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), Texas (Taylor 1960, Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013), Virginia (Humm 1979).

Central America: Belize (Taylor 1960, Norris & Bucher 1982, Littler & Littler 1997), Costa Rica (Taylor 1960), Panama (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cayman Islands (Taylor 1960), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004, Suárez 2005, Díez García & Jover Capote 2011, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960, Betancourt & Herrera-Moreno, 2001), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Rodríguez-Prieto, Michanek & Ivon 1999, Delnatte & Wynne 2016), Netherlands Antilles (Taylor 1960), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Trinidad & Tobago (Taylor 1960, Richardson 1975, Duncan & Lee Lum 2006), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930, Joly 1957, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Oliveira Filho 1977, Falcão & Menezes de Széchy 2005, Castelar et al. 2009, Villaca et al. 2010, Yokoya et al. 2010, Creed et al. 2010, Nauer et al. 2014 , Martins et al. 2016), Colombia (Taylor 1960, Díaz-Pulido & Díaz-Ruíz 2003), Guyana (Taylor 1960), Uruguay (Howe 1931 , Taylor 1960, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Angola (John et al. 2004), Cameroon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Congo (John et al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Djibouti (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968, Aleem 1993), Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968), Gabon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Gambia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Guinea-Bissau (Welten, Audiffred & Prud'homme van Reine 2002, Welten, Audiffred & Prud'homme van Reine 2002, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Mauritius (Børgesen 1943, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Conde Poyales 1992), Mozambique (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Namibia (Wynne 1986, Rull Lluch 2002, John et al. 2004), Nigeria (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Senegal (John et al. 2004), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Togo (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987), Western Sahara (John et al. 2004).

Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), St Paul Island (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Ahmed et al. 2009), Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015), Iran (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Israel (Nemlich & Danin 1964, Hoffman 2004, Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Jordan (Papenfuss 1968), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Oman (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Saudi Arabia (Papenfuss 1968), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ), Yemen (Papenfuss 1968, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Asia: South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012), Myanmar (Burma) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Myo Min Tun & Soe-Htun 2014), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Pham et al. 2011).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), Western Australia (Huisman & Walker 1990, Huisman 2008).

Pacific Islands: Hawaiian Islands (Abbott 1999, Smith, Hunter & Smith 2002, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007 ), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Hayee-Memon, A. & Shameel, M. (1996). A taxonomic study of some red algae commonly growing on the coast of Karachi. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 5(2): 113-137.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Masuda, M., Yamagishi, Y., Chiang, Y.-M., Lewmanomont, K. & Xia, B.M. (1997). Overview of Hypnea (Rhodophyta, Hypneaceae). In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.6, pp. 127-133. La Jolla, California: California Sea Grant College System.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Nauer, F., Guimarães, N.R., Cassano, V., Yokoya, N.S., Oliveira, M.C. (2014). Hypnea species (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from the southeastner coast of Brazil based on molecular studies complemented with morphological analyses, including descriptions of Hypnea edeniana sp. nov. and H. flava sp. nov. European Journal of Phycology 49(4): 550-575, 54 fig., 3 tables.

Okamura, K. (1909). Icones of Japanese Algae. Vol. II pp. 21-40, Plates LVI-LX. Tokyo: published by the author.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Vásquez-Delfín, E., Boo, G.H., Rodríguez, D., Boo, S.M. & Robledo, D. (2016). Hypnea musciformis (Cystocloniaceae) from the Yucatan Peninsula: morphological variability in relation to life-cycle phase. Phycologia 55(2): 230-242.

Wynne, M.J. (2002). A description of Plocamium fimbriatum sp. nov. (Plocamiales, Rhodophyta), from the Sultanate of Oman, with a census of currently recognized species of the genus. Nova Hedwigia 75: 333-356.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel zelenikh, burikh i krasnich odoroslei juzhnikh morei SSSR [Guide to the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of USSR]. pp. 1-398. Moscow, Leningrad: Academia Nauk.

Created: 09 April 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 02 August 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 20499 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Apt, K.E. (1984). Note: Effects of the symbiotic red alga Hypneocolax stellaris on its host Hypnea musciformis (Hypneaceae, Gigartinales). Journal of Phycology 20: 148-150, 1 fig, 1 table.
Berchez, F. A. S., Pereira, R. T. L. & Kamiya, N. F. (1993). Culture of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) on artificial substrates attached to linear ropes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 415-420.
Berchez, F.A.S. & Oliveira, E.C. (1990). Maricultual assays with the carrageenophyte Hypnea musciformis in S. Paulo, Brazil. In: Cultivation of seaweeds in Latin America. (Oliveira, E.C. & Kautsky, N. Eds), pp. 89-94. Sao Paulo: University of Sao Paulo.
Chiang, C.F., Xia, E.Z. & Xia, B.M. (1963). A comparative study of Hypnea musciformis (Wulf.) Lamx. and Hypnea japonica Tanaka. Oceanologia et limnologia Sinica 5: 35-43, 1 plate.
Dawes, C.J., Moon, R. & LaClaire, J. (1976). Photosynthetic responses of the red alga, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux (Gigartinales). Bulletin of Marine Science 26: 467-473.
De Goracuchi, C., Lokar-Coassini, L., Bruni, G. & Davanzo, S. (1969). Richerche sulle possibilità di sfruttamento economico delle alghe dell'Alto Adriatico. Caratteristiche fisico-chimiche del polisaccaride solfato dell' Hypnea musciformis e loro variabilità stagionale. Boll. Soc. Adriatica Sci. Trieste 57: 131-152.
Friedlander, M. & Zelikovitch (1984). Growth rates, phycocolloid yield and quality of the red seaweeds, Gracilaria sp., Pterocladia capillacea, Hypnea musciformis, and Hypnea cornuta, in field studies in Israel. Aquaculture 40: 57-66.
Haines, K.C. & Wheeler, P.A. (1978). Ammonium and nitrate uptake by the marine macrophytes Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta) and Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 319-324, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Kapraun, D.F., Bailey, J.C. & Dutcher, J.A. (1994). Nuclear genome characterization of the Carrageenophyte Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 6: 7-12.
Knutsen, S.H., Murano, E., D'Amato, M., Toffanin, R., Rizzo, R. & Paoletti, S. (1995). Modified procedures for extraction and analysis of carrageenan applied to the red alga Hypnea musciformis. Journal of Applied Phycology 7: 565-576.
Martins, A.P., Yokoya, N.S., Carvalho, M.A.M. & Plastino, E.M. (2009). Effects of kinetin and nitrogen on growth rates, pigment and protein contents in wild and phycoerythrin-deficient strains of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 317-323, 5 figs.
Melo, V.M.M., Medeiros, D.A., Rios, F.J.B., Castelar, L.I.M. & Carvalho, A. de F.F.U. (1997). Antifungal properties of proteins (agglutinins) from the red alga Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux.. Botanica Marina 40: 281-284.
Mollion, J. (1978). Seasonal variations in carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis, (Florideophyceae) in Senegal. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 233-240.
Mshigeni, K.E. & Lorris, W.S.M. (1977). Spore germination and early stages of development in Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Marine Biology, Berlin 42: 161-164, 2 figs.
Muñoz, O., Palma, H. & Guevara, G. (1986). Agar content of two species of Rhodophyte algae, Gracilaria domingensis Sonder and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux from the Margarita Island coast, Venezuela. Conv. Nac. Asivac. 36: 188.
Nauer, F., Cassano, V. & Oliveira, M.C. (2015). Description of Hypnea pseudomusciformis sp. nov., a new species based on molecular and morphological analyses, in the context of the H. musciformis complex (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 27: 2405-2417, 5 figs.
Ramarao, K. & Krishnamurthy, V. (1968). Study of the preperation and properties of the phycocolloid from Hypnea musciformis (Wulf) Lamour from Veraval, Gujarat Coast. Botanica Marina 11: 129-134.
Reis, R.P. & Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y. (2000). Phenology of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in three populations from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Botanica Marina 43: 299-304, 4 figs.
Russell, D.J. (1992). The ecological invasion of Hawaiian reefs by two marine red algae, Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl.) Boerg. and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. Ag. and their association with two native species, Laurencia nidfica J. Ag. and Hypnea cervicornis J. Ag.. In: Introductions and Transfers of Aquatic Species. (Sinderman, C., Steinmetz, B. & Herschbergen, W. Eds), pp. 110-125. Halifax, N.S.: ICES Marine Science Symp.,.
Schenkman, R.P.F. (1989). Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta): ecological influence on growth. Journal of Phycology 25: 192-196.
Vásquez-Delfín, E., Boo, G.H., Rodríguez, D., Boo, S.M. & Robledo, D. (2016). Hypnea musciformis (Cystocloniaceae) from the Yucatan Peninsula: morphological variability in relation to life-cycle phase. Phycologia 55(2): 230-242.
Yokoya, N.S., Plastino, E.M. & Artel, R. (2003). Physiological responses and pigment characterization of two colour strains of the carrageenophyte Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 425-434.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 24 October 2017.

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