150,117 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,397 images, 57,742 bibliographic items, 380,804 distributional records.

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Ralfsiales
Family Ralfsiaceae
Genus Ralfsia

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug
middle intertidal on Patella, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 28 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug
Galicia, Ría de A coruña, 2010, microscope. 24 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug
South Africa. Robert Anderson. © Robert Anderson (Robert.Anderson@uct.ac.za).

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug
microscope, Spain, Galicia, San Andrés de Teixido, 2002; unilocular sporangia. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug
microscope, Spain, Galicia, Ría de Vivero, 2006. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug
Platboom, Cape Peninsula, South Africa; mid-intertidal rock. 21 Sep 2005. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

 

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug microscope, Spain, Galicia, Ría de Vivero, 2006

Publication details
Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug in Fries 1845: 124

Published in: Fries, E.M. (1845). Summa vegetabilium Scandinaviae, seu enumeratio, systematica et critica, plantarum tum cotyledonearum, quum nemearum inter mare occidentale et album, inter Eidoram et Nordkap, hactenus lectarum, una cum singulae distributione geographica. pp. Sectio prior: [i], [iii], [i]-258, signatures 1-16 in fours. Holmiae & Lipsiae [Stockholm & Leipzig]: A. Bonnier.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ralfsia is Ralfsia deusta (C.Agardh) Berkeley.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Cruoria verrucosa Areschoug

Type information
Type locality: Bohuslän, Western Götaland, Sweden (Areschoug 1843: 264).LD Notes: According to Womersley (1987), the type locality is Bahusia, Norway. Syntypes issued as Alg. sc. exs. No 256

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), warty (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Cruoria verrucosa Areschoug 1843

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ralfsia verrucosa var. lignicola Areschoug 1847
Ralfsia verrucosa var. cochlearum Areschoug 1876

Nomenclatural notes
Price et al. (1978) and Womersley (1987) cites the authorities for this species as (Areschoug) J. Agardh. Authorities and place of publication of the combination here is as verified in Index Nominum Algarum.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug)
English: Limpet Paint (Bunker et al. 2010).

Japanese: Iso-iwatake (Tokida 1954).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957, Lee 1980), White Sea (Garbary & Tarakhovskaya 2013).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Ercegovic 1980, Ribera et al. 1992), Apulia (Bottalico et al. 2016), Balearic Islands (Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Ribera et al. 1992), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Black Sea (Ribera et al. 1992), Britain (Newton 1931, Fletcher 1987, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2016), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977, Ribera et al. 1992), Denmark (Wernberg 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1937, Coppejans 1972, Ribera et al. 1992, Lim et al. 2007, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Athanasiadis 1987, Ribera et al. 1992, Tsiamis et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2013), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Cotton 1912, Guiry 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Morton 1994, Guiry 2012), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Cinelli et al. 1976, Ribera et al. 1992, Ribera et al. 1992, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Serio et al 2006), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997), Norway (Jaasund 1965, Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (De Mesquita Rodrigues 1963, Ardré 1970, Araújo et al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Slovenia (Rindi & Battelli 2005), Spain (Hamel 1928, Miranda 1931, Fischer-Piette, C. & Seoane-Camba, J. (1962), Seoane-Camba 1965, Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Pérez-Cirera & Maldonado 1982, Gallardo & Pérez-Cirera 1982, Sierra & Fernández 1984, Pérez-Ruzafa & Honrubia 1984, Gallardo et al. 1985, Ramos Esplá 1985, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Soto & Conde 1989, Ribera et al. 1992, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Sánchez, Fernández & Rico 2003, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Lobón et al. 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Pinedo et al. 2013, Pinedo et al. 2013), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1947), Turkey (Europe) (Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Ribera et al. 1992, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Canary Islands (Børgesen 1926, Price, John & Lawson 1978, Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Greenland (Pedersen 2011), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, John et al. 2004).

North America: Connecticut (Taylor 1957, Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979), Maine (Mathieson et al. 2001), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), New Jersey (Taylor 1957), Québec (Taylor 1957), Virginia (Humm 1979).

South America: Argentina (Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Boraso de Zaixso 2013).

Africa: Algeria (Ribera et al. 1992, Ould-Ahmed et al. 2013), Egypt (Aleem 1993), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritius (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Ribera et al. 1992).

Indian Ocean Islands: Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Krishnamurthy & Baluswami 2010), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Levant states (Ribera et al. 1992).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008, Zeng 2009, Luan Rixiao et al. 2013), Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Kamchatka (Klochkova, Korolyova & Kusidi 2009), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001, Keum 2010, Keum 2010), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Philippines (Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2013).

Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Womersley 1987), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Harper et al. 2012), Tasmania (Womersley 1987), Western Australia (Womersley 1987).

Key references
Areschoug, J.E. (1847). Phycearum, quae in maribus Scandinaviae crescunt, enumeratio. Sectio prior Fucaceas continens. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis 13: 223-382, pls I-IX.

Belous O.C., Titlyanova, T.B. & Titlyanov E.A. (2013). [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. [1]-263. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Catra, M., Alongi, G. & Giaccone, G. (2012). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Phaeophyceae. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia 45: 1-508.

De Toni, G.B. (1895). Sylloge algarum omnium hucusque cognitarum. Vol. III. Fucoideae. Vol. 3 pp. [i]-xvi, [1]-638. Patavii [Padua]: Sumptibus auctoris.

Dragastan, O. & Richter, D.K. (1999). Late Jurassic oolites from the Acrocorinth (NE - Peloponnesus): Calcareous micro-algae as an exceptional paleoecologic indicator. Bochumer geol. u. geotechn. Arb 53: 149-172.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Klochkova, N.G., Korolyova, T.N. & Kusidi, A.E. (2009). [Atlas of algae-macrophytes Kamchatka waters. Vol 1. Green algae and brown algae]. pp. 1-216. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky: KamchatNIRO Press.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Wernberg, T. (2006). Scale of impact determines early post-disturbance assemblage structure in subtidal Fucus beds in the Baltic Sea (Bornholm, Denmark). European Journal of Phycology 41: 105-113.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1987). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part II. pp. 481, 169 figs, 1 table, 8 plates, 4 maps. Adelaide: South Australian Government Printing Division.

Yoshida, T. (1998). Marine algae of Japan. pp. [1-2], 1-25, 1-1222. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd.

Zanardini, G. (1874). Scelta di ficee nuove o piu rare del mare Adriatico. Memorie del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti 18(1): [253]-286, pls XCVII-CIV.

Zinova, A.D. (1953). Opredelitel burykh vodoroslej severnykh morej SSSR [Manual for identification of the brown algae of the northern seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-224. Moscow & Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel zelenikh, burikh i krasnich odoroslei juzhnikh morei SSSR [Guide to the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of USSR]. pp. 1-398. Moscow, Leningrad: Academia Nauk.

Created: 09 April 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 July 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 8461 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Kain (Jones), J.M. (2008). Winter favours growth and survival of Ralfsia verrucosa (Phaeophyceae) in high intertidal rockpools in southeast Australia. Phycologia 47(5): 498-509, 11 figs, 5 tables.
Kain (Jones), J.M., Buchanan, J., Boo, S.M. & Lee, K.M. (2010). Colpomenia bullosa crust masquerading as Ralfsia verrucosa (Phaeophyceae) in southeast Australia. Phycologia 49(6): 617-627.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 14 December 2017.

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