151,338 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,619 images, 58,430 bibliographic items, 382,387 distributional records.

Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Gymnodiniaceae
Genus Gyrodinium


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Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy
Poulsbo, Washington, USA; Liberty Bay Marina, 1000x, DIC. 08 Aug 2009. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy
Port Townsend, Washington, USA; Waterfront Park, Lugol's, 400x, DIC. 04 Jul 2009. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; Waterfront Park, Lugol's, 1000x, DIC. 05 Jul 2009. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy
© Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).

Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy
© Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).


Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy Port Townsend, Washington, USA; Waterfront Park, Lugol's, 400x, DIC

Publication details
Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy 1921: 332, pl. 4: fig. 43, fig. DD, 14

Published in: Kofoid, C.A. & Swezy, O. (1921). The free-living unarmored Dinoflagellata. Memoirs of the University of California 5: i-viii, 1-562.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Gyrodinium.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Gymnodinium spirale Bergh

Type information
Type locality: Denmark: Strib (isl. Fyen) (Silva 1996-to date).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), spiral (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gymnodinium spirale Bergh 1881

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Spirodinium spirale Entz 1884

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Gymnodinium spirale Bergh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Spirodinium spirale Entz)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Gyrodinium spirale (Bergh) Kofoid & Swezy)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Black Sea (Goméz & Boicenco 2004, BSPC Editorial Board 2014), Britain (Parke & Dixon 1976, Dodge 1981), France (Anon. 2017, Hernández Fariñas et al. 2017), Helgoland (Hoppenrath 2004), Mediterranean (Gómez 2003), Netherlands (Veen et al. 2015), Portugal (Moita & Vilarinho 1999), Turkey (Europe) (Balkis 2004).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014).

North America: Mexico (Escobar-Morales & Hernández-Becerril 2015 ), Mexico (Caribbean) (Merino-Virgilio et al. 2013).

Central America: Mexico (Caribbean) (Escobar-Morales & Hernández-Becerril 2015).

South America: Brazil (Odebrecht 2010).

South-west Asia: Turkey (Asia) (Balkis et al. 2016).

Asia: China (Liu 2008), Korea (Lee et al. 2014, Lim et al. 2017), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (McCarthy 2013), New Zealand (Chang et al. 2012).

Source of current name
Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Key references
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Escobar-Morales, S. & Hernández-Becerril, D.U. (2015). Free-living marine planktonic unarmoured dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Pacific. Botanica Marina 58(1): 9-22.

Gárate-Lizárraga, I. (2014). Unarmored dinoflagellates present during a bloom of Ceratoperidinium falcatum in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California. Dinoflagelados desnudos presentes durante un florecimiento de Ceratoperidinium falcatum en Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California. Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 49: 577-587.

Lindberg, K., Moestrup, Ø & Daugbjerg, N. (2005). Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates I: Woloszynskia coronata re-examined using light and electron microscopy and partial LSU rDNA sequences, with description of Tovellia gen. nov. and Jadwigia gen. nov. (Tovelliaceae fam. nov.). Phycologia 44: 416-440.

Parke, M. & Dixon, P.S. (1976). Check-list of British marine algae - third revision. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 56: 527-594.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 27 July 2015 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 4913 times since it was created.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 April 2018.

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