150,112 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,397 images, 57,748 bibliographic items, 380,813 distributional records.

Alexandrium fraterculus (Balech) Balech, nom. inval.

Publication details
Alexandrium fraterculus (Balech) Balech in D.M.Anderson, A.W.White & D.G.Baden 1985: 37, nom. inval.

Published in: Anderson, D.M., White, A.M. & Baden, G. (1985). Toxic dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, June 8-12, 1985. pp. i-xv, 1-561, figs. & tables numbered by article. New York, Amsterdam, Oxford: Elsevier.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium is Alexandrium minutum Halim.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gonyaulax fraterculus Balech

Type information
Type locality: Argentina: Mar del Plata (Balech 1964: 41).

Origin of species name
Noun (Latin), little brother.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax fraterculus Balech 1964
Gessnerium fraterculus (Balech) Loeblich & Loeblich, III 1979
Protogonyaulax fraterculus (Balech) F.J.R.Taylor 1979

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gessnerium fraterculum (Balech) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III
Protogonyaulax fratercula (Balech) Taylor

Nomenclatural notes
Epithet is an indecinable, second-decension masculine noun. - (12 Feb 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Invalid: basionym not validly published - (17 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Shellfish toxin. - (17 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Alexandrium fraterculus (Balech) Balech)
South America: Brazil (Odebrecht 2010), Colombia (Lozano-Duque, Velasquez & Navas S 2011).

Asia: Japan (Nagai et al. 2009, Jeong et al. 2017 ), Korea (Kim et al., Jeong et al. 2017 ), South Korea (Leaw et al 2005).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (McCarthy 2013).

Key references
Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Menezes, M., Varela, D., de Oliveira Proenca, L.A., da Silva Tamanaha, M. & Paredes, J. (2010). Identification of the toxic alga Alexandrium tamiyavanichi (Dinophyceae) from northeastern Brazil: a combined morphological and rDNA sequence (partial LSU and ITS) approach. Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1239-1251.

Nagai, S., Nishitani, G., Takano, Y., Yoshida, M. & Takayama, H. (2009). Encystment and excystment under laboratory conditions of the nontoxic dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Phycologia 48(3): 177-185, 24 figs, 1 table.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1478 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Nagai, S., Nishitani, G., Takano, Y., Yoshida, M. & Takayama, H. (2009). Encystment and excystment under laboratory conditions of the nontoxic dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Phycologia 48(3): 177-185, 24 figs, 1 table.

Linking to this page: http://algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=K1bd0aa2177b49a96

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 December 2017.

SITE © 1996 - 2017 M.D. Guiry. All rights reserved.

Website Design : 249 Design Studio